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Keynote Lectures

In Vivo Measurement of Muscle Architecture: Physiological and Methodological Considerations
Olivier Seynnes, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH), Norway

A Theoretical Framework for Integrating Virtual Reality Systems in Learning Designs of a Professional Football Youth Academy Practice Programme
Keith Davids, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom

Biofabrication as a New Technology to Sports Medicine: Mimicking Implants for Bone and Cartilage Regeneration
Pedro Morouço, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

 

In Vivo Measurement of Muscle Architecture: Physiological and Methodological Considerations

Olivier Seynnes
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH)
Norway
 

Brief Bio
Research Associate/Fellow, Institute for Biomedical Research into Human Movement and Health, Manchester Metropolitan University. (2004-2011) PhD in Human movement sciences, Ecole Doctorale des Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé, Université d'Aix-Marseille II, 2003. Post-graduate diploma in Gerontology, Faculté de Médecine de L'Université de Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, France, 2003. MSc by research in Human movement sciences, Ecole Doctorale des Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé, Université d'Aix-Marseille II, 2000.


Abstract
In Vivo Measurement of Muscle Architecture: Physiological and Methodological Considerations In vivo muscle architecture measurements are nowadays included in many research projects on muscle structure, function and plasticity. The spatial arrangement of muscle fascicles is associated with a number of functional features and is also increasingly integrated in clinical settings. However, broad variations in measurements cloud our understanding of the functional significance of muscle architecture and its plasticity. This variation is caused by a number of factors, including the limitations of two-dimensional measurements, assumptions about the homogeneity of fascicle length and behaviour in different muscle regions or predictions generally based on resting anatomy. This presentation will propose 1) a practical review of important considerations to assess muscle architecture using 2D ultrasonography and to highlight the limitations of this technique and, 2) a review of the evidence supporting the link between architecture and function.



 

 

A Theoretical Framework for Integrating Virtual Reality Systems in Learning Designs of a Professional Football Youth Academy Practice Programme

Keith Davids
Sheffield Hallam University
United Kingdom
 

Brief Bio
Professor Keith Davids is Professor of Motor Learning at the Centre for Sports Engineering Research (CSER), where he leads the Skill Acquisition theme. His research programme in ecological dynamics investigates constraints on coordination tendencies in athletes and sports teams classed as nonlinear dynamical systems. Ideas from ecological psychology and nonlinear dynamics have been integrated into a Nonlinear Pedagogy. His research seeks to investigate affordances as constraints on emergent coordination tendencies in athletes and sports teams. In addition to his research Keith supervises several UK based and international doctoral students. Keith is also a journal and grant reviewer for several national and international publishing companies and organisations, and contributes to the MSc Human Factors in Sports Engineering module. More information on: https://www.shu.ac.uk/about-us/our-people/staff-profiles/keith-davids


Abstract
A rapidly developing area of research concerns use of Virtual Reality (VR) systems to develop understanding of sport performance in order to enhance training effectiveness and efficiency. A recent systematic review by Neumann et al. (2017) identified twenty articles revealing that current research on VR systems for enhancing sport performance has targeted factors related to the athlete, task and environment, focusing mainly on endurance sports such as cycling, running and rowing. Research, from an ecological psychology perspective, on VR systems for understanding team sports performance (e.g., see Craig, 2013; Correia et al., 2012), has implicated relevance of information and action in experimental task design. This presentation describes a collaborative project, framed by an ecological dynamics rationale that can develop learning designs for integration of VR systems into practice programmes for elite youth footballers.
Key concepts in ecological dynamics, such as perception-action coupling, representative design of practice environments and provision of opportunities to explore affordance landscapes, can enrich learning designs with VR systems in elite football. An ecological dynamics rationale for integration of digital technologies, like VR systems, can provide a framework for a Department of Methodology in elite sports organisations to coordinate the work of all practitioners (e.g., coaches, trainers, technicians, performance analysts, sport scientists and psychologists) to enhance skill and expertise in athletes, alongside practical training activities.
An ecological dynamics framework provides design principles to enrich the development of youth athletes through: (i) a deep integration of perception, cognition and action in performance preparation by exploiting practice 'repetition without repetition'; (ii) individualisation of training activities, focusing on specificity of individual learning needs; (iii) enhancement of emotional control and adaptive performance behaviours by providing opportunities for self-regulation and experience of fun during learning; and (iv), protecting against physical effects of over-training and for continued learning when recovering from injuries.

 



 

 

Biofabrication as a New Technology to Sports Medicine: Mimicking Implants for Bone and Cartilage Regeneration

Pedro Morouço
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria
Portugal
 

Brief Bio

Pedro G. Morouço is Associate Professor and Principal Investigator of Biofabrication at the Centre for Rapid and Sustainable Product Development – Polytechnic Institute of Leiria. As a very enthusiastic and provoking early-career researcher, he has been invited to collaborate in several national and international projects (e.g. Principal Investigator of “2bio4cartilage – Integrated intervention program for prevention and treatment of cartilage lesions” and the Scientific Director of “print-on-organs: Engineering Bioinks and Processes for Direct Printing on Organs”) focusing his research activity, mostly, on products and processes engineering, aiming to bringing the gap between the lab and in vivo applications.


Abstract
We all know that degenerative diseases (e.g. Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis) are a supreme problem for such an aging and sedentary society. If years ago this was a concern for people over 60, nowadays it is becoming very common to identify younger people with joint pain and stiffness. Regarding its treatment, on one hand, exercise should be a clear recommendation, and on the other hand, significant advances are being given in regenerative medicine, with promising results for the society. However, it is not clear is which type(s) and intensity of exercises should be performed, as an increased load over the joints with joint malalignment will be worse than better. Furthermore, biofabrication, making suitable the production of customized implants, have the promise to deliver a bioactive structure that totally mimics the native tissue of the patient. To do so, an optimal balance between mechanical and biological properties, along with the degradation rate, should be found. Yet, when implanted, how will they respond to the normal mechanical loading over time? And to the abnormal? So, should a treated patient be enrolled in exercise to decrease his/her body mass? With which type of exercise? Several questions demonstrating the stimulating triad that researchers should look up to for promising treatments. Examples will be given on engineering different biomaterials, processes and applications, stimulating the creative thinking of the audience.



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