icSPORTS 2020 Abstracts


Area 1 - Computer Systems in Sports

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Data-driven Summarization of Broadcasted Cycling Races by Automatic Team and Rider Recognition

Authors:

Steven Verstockt, Alec Van den broeck, Brecht Van Vooren, Simon De Smul and Jelle De Bock

Abstract: The number of spectators for cycling races broadcasted on television is decreasing each year. More dynamic and personalized reporting formats are needed to keep the viewer interested. In this paper, we propose a methodology for data-driven summarization, which allows end-users to query for personalized stories of a race, tailored to their needs (such as the length of the clip and the riders and/or teams that they are interested in). The automatic summarization uses a combination of skeleton-based rider pose detection and pose-based recognition algorithms of the team jerseys and rider faces/numbers. Evaluation on both cyclocross and road cycling races show that there is certainly potential in this novel methodology.

Paper Nr: 12
Title:

The Flexibility Trainer: Feasibility Analysis, Prototype- and Test Station Development for a Sports Device for Hip-joint Flexibility and Strength Enhancement

Authors:

Hölbling Dominik, Grafinger Manfred, Baca Arnold and Dabnichki Peter

Abstract: Martial Arts, dancing, and gymnastics are among the sports that depend on outstanding hip-joint flexibility and strength to successfully perform high level techniques. Latest research suggests that flexibility and antagonistic strength are strongly related and require agonistic strength training. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop a model prototype of a device that utilises flexibility-enhancement reflexes and provides appropriate means for strength training and delivers hip joint range-of-motion (ROM) increase. The device provisionally called Flexibility Trainer (FT) is equipped with sensors that measures and estimate the athletes’ hip joint moments during training. The FT aims to utilise the athletes body weight while performing controlled leg spreads. Its main components are a rail system with 2 slides and foot mounts (tiltable and turnable), a hydraulic braking system for force independent constant velocity slide (nearly isokinetic), a force sensor and a holding device. It is hypothesised that the leg-spread movement activates the reciprocal-inhibition reflex and increases antagonistic strength, whereas the leg-closing movement activates the autogenic-inhibition reflex and leads to serial hypertrophy. A model for hip-joint moment calculation based on force sensor and motion capturing data is proposed.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Detection of Ball Spin Direction using Hitting Sound in Tennis

Authors:

Naoki Yamamoto, Kenji Nishida, Katsutoshi Itoyama and Kazuhiro Nakadai

Abstract: This paper describes the detection of rotation direction using the hitting sound of tennis balls. Since each ball rotation direction has a slightly different rotation direction and trajectory, there should be a difference in the hitting sound. To distinguish the characteristics of ball rotation direction, a database was constructed that combines the hitting sound recorded experimentally with ball rotation direction. Since it is difficult to distinguish audible differences in hitting sounds by ear, it is necessary to identify them using measuring instruments. For this purpose, after extracting the amplitude spectrum by fast Fourier transform of the shot sound, the entire data was normalized and classified by a support vector machine. As a result of evaluating this method, a high accuracy was obtained in identifying the sound associated with slice among other hit sounds. The proposed method also evaluated the ball hit sound from a YouTube video in an unknown environment and achieved a perfectly correct identification of spin and slice.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Freestyle Swimming Analysis of Symmetry and Velocities using a MEMS based IMU: Introducing a Symmetry Score

Authors:

Andy Stamm and Igor Shlyonsky

Abstract: MEMS sensors (IMU’s) are widely available nowadays and tend to be used more often in sports monitoring. Especially in swimming these sensors have seen rapid development in the past years. These sensors have very good measurement capabilities today, but the automatic analysis of the gathered data has not yet been implemented. Our objective is to develop and validate an automatic analysis which can provide the swimmers/coaches with nearly immediate feedback on a smartphone/tablet. Ten swimmers ranging from novice to elite have been participating in this study performing freestyle in either 25m or 50m pools. All trials were recorded with a 3-axis accelerometer. The symmetry parameters have been extracted from the recorded data after these were high-pass filtered to remove the gravity from the signal and a zero crossing detection algorithm was applied. The results showed a very strong relation to results obtained by other researchers.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Stroke Comparison between Professional Tennis Players and Amateur Players using Advanced Computer Vision

Authors:

Lisa Baily, Nghia Truong, Jonathan Lai and Phong Nguyen

Abstract: In this paper, we created a method to find how professional and amateur tennis serves differ from each other. We collected videos from online and from our own recordings and turned those videos into frames. From those frames, we manually selected ones appropriate for our study and ran those through a pose estimation system, which turned those frames into simple stick figures of the players including all the x and y coordinates of the player. By normalizing all data, we were able to calculate the Euclidean distance between two compared players’ joints and analyze their consistency in their serves. Our results from our t-tests showed that there was a significant difference between the amateur’s consistency and the pro’s consistency and body parts like both shoulders showed a significant difference.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Proposal of New Sports Video Expression using 8K Video by Simultaneous Analysis of Four Players

Authors:

Takuya Sarugaku, Kanji Kitahama and Mitsuho Yamada

Abstract: With the start of 4K and 8K broadcasting from December 2018, ultra-high-definition video is becoming more familiar. In addition, international sporting events such as the Olympic Games are drawing more attention to sports. For this reason, the technology for sports video expression, such as free-viewpoint video, has been developed. In this paper, we propose the simultaneous measurement of four units using the wireless eye movement measurement device we developed and a new video expression method for sports that simultaneously displays the line of sight and movement of the athlete. In addition, experiments in dance, badminton singles and indiaca were conducted as a preliminary experiment. In the dance experiment, we evaluated the accuracy of the eye movement measurement device before and after the high-speed rotation of a dance expert. By analyzing eye movements and body motions, we successfully measured a technique called spotting, which is used by dancers to suppress dizziness. We found that the gaze movement of badminton and indiaca players leads the shuttle, instead of following it. In badminton doubles, four players were simultaneously measured and analyzed using 8K resolution. By simultaneously measuring the gaze of the four players, we were able to identify their tactics.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

GPS Driven Camera Selection in Cyclocross Races for Automatic Rider Story Generation

Authors:

Jelle De Bock, Alec Van Den Broeck and Steven Verstockt

Abstract: Cyclocross races are a very popular winter sport in Belgium and the Netherlands. In this paper we present a methodology to calculate the proximity of riders to a number of cameras that are located on a cyclocross course in order to automatically select the correct camera for each rider. The methodology is based on two main input sources. The first input is the course with cameras positioned along it. As the course and camera information is usually available as pdf and isn’t directly processable by computer programs, we propose the conversion GeoJSON. The second requirement for our methodology is accurate location tracking of the athletes on the course with the help of wearable GPS trackers. We present an experimental camera proximity algorithm that uses both input sources and finds for every rider at any given moment in the race the closest camera or vice versa. The output of this methodology results in automatic identification of the filmed riders by a given camera at a given moment in the race and might benefit post-processing of the camera video streams for further computer vision-based analysis of the streams, for example, to pre-filter the camera streams or to generate rider and team stories.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

Commonality of Motions Having Effective Features with Respect to Methods for Identifying the Moves Made during Kumite Sparring in Karate

Authors:

Keiichi Sato, Hitoshi Matsubara and Keiji Suzuki

Abstract: In recent years, active use of imaging technology, sensor technology, and AI (artificial intelligence) has been on the rise to identify various plays that occur in sports competition to assist judges, coaches, and athletes. However, no study result has been reported on this research topic as it pertains to karate sparring competition. The lack of past studies on this topic is attributable to the fact that no viable method has been developed to acquire motion data or to identify athletes’ motions at a fundamental level in competition, as no sensors can be worn by athletes on their bodies, and there are a number of blind spots that occur in competition due to fast-paced exchanges that competing athletes engage in, among other factors. Therefore, in this study, footage of kumite (sparring) in the practice of karate simulating actual competitive matches was captured using video cameras to conduct a motion identification experiment using a CNN (convolutional neural network). After comparing the result of this study to that of previous motion identification experiments in which subjects wore sensors on their bodies, it has been determined that the motions having effective features are common between the two types of experiments.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

The Impact of Regular Outdoor Cycling and Gender on Technology Trust and Distrust in Cars, and on Anxiety

Authors:

Klemens Weigl

Abstract: Regular cycling is well-known for its numerous benefits on physiological and mental health. However, cyclists are confronted with numerous other road users with different modes of transport which are more harmful to nature and may be even more dangerous. As yet, there has been no study which focuses jointly on the potential influence of trust and distrust in cars, anxiety, age, and gender in the context of regular outdoor cycling. Consequently, we carried out a questionnaire study and queried 114 participants (60 female (34 cyclists); 54 male (32 cyclists)). We assessed trust and distrust in cars, trait anxiety in a non-clinical context, age, and gender. Our results reveal that cyclists rate distrust in cars with significantly greater values when compared to non-cyclists. Moreover, we found that women assign substantially lower ratings to trust and higher ratings to distrust in cars than men, regardless whether they are cyclists or not. Additionally, women report significantly higher values on anxiety in a non-clinical context. Finally, our results indicate that older people are less likely to engage with regular outdoor cycling. We conclude that female and male cyclists are more critical on distrust in cars than non-cyclists, though they are not more anxious.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Vertical Jumps Performance Analysis: Implementation of Novel Complex of Jumps

Authors:

Anna Zakharova and Kamiliia Mekhdieva

Abstract: The proposed study was focused on justification of complex of vertical jumping tests analysis for practical applications of athletes’ enhancement. Eighteen national level female athletes aged from 18 to 25 (13 basketball-players and 5 biathletes) underwent anthropometric measurements and set of vertical jumping tests on the force plate. To obtain comprehensive data on jumps performance and motor assymetry classic countermovement and squat jumps were supplemented by countermovent jump with arms swinging and single-leg jumps (on the right and left leg separately). Descriptive and comparative analysis were applied for further statistical data processing. We found that: (i) mean values of body composition variables were within the norm in both groups, meanwhile, biathletes had significantly higher relative body and leg muscle mass; (ii) there were no significant differences in countermovement jump performance between basketball players and biathletes except longer duration of squat and take-off phases in biathletes; (iii) squat jump performance analysis revealed significantly higher strength of knee extensors in female biathletes; (iv) jump height in countermovement jump with arms swinging was significantly higher in biathletes’ group; (v) motor asymmetry of lower extremities was more evident in basketball players. The proposed set of different vertical jumps provides with valuable information on fitness level in athletes.

Area 2 - Health and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

Raw Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Variables (Impedance Ratio and Phase Angle) and Physical Fitness in Cross-Fit® Athletes

Authors:

Giada Ballarin, Fabiana Monfrecola, Paola Alicante, Rossella Chierchia, Maurizio Marra, Anna M. Sacco and Luca Scalfi

Abstract: Few data are available on body composition and its relationships with physical fitness in Cross-Fit® athletes. Our study aimed to evaluate changes in raw bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) variables and their relationships with physical fitness in male Cross-Fit® athletes. Fifteen male Cross-Fit® athletes (age 19-35 years, weight 83.8±5.6 kg, body mass index-BMI 26.0±1.9 kg/m²) and fifty-one control men, (age 20-30 years, weight 76.5±10.8 kg, BMI 24.6±3.2 kg/m²) participated in the study. Body composition was evaluated by using BIA and physical fitness was assessed by measuring handgrip strength (HGS), long jump (L-J), squat jump (SQ-J) and counter-movement jump (CM-J). Phase angles were higher and impedance ratios were lower in Cross-Fit® athletes for the whole body and limbs (both these directly-measured raw BIA variables are promising markers of muscle quality). HGS was only slightly higher in the Cross-Fit® group, whereas a clear difference emerged between groups in L-J (+16.2% in Cross-Fit® athletes), SQ-J (+21.5%) and CM-J (+21.5%). HGS, L-J, SQ-J and CM-J significantly correlated with both impedance ratios and phase angles (for whole body and limbs). In conclusion, raw BIA variables such as impedance ratio and phase angle significantly change in Cross-Fit® athletes compared to controls and also exhibit significant relationships with physical fitness.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

Comparison of Manual Anthropometry and a Mobile Digital Anthropometric System

Authors:

Anita Bušić, Josip Bušić, John Coleman and Jožef Šimenko

Abstract: With the progress of technology, new digital shape-analysis tools are being developed for use in several different fields. Innovation and market demand has pushed developers to create a portable 3D scanner. The aim of this research was to perform a comparison of a new portable measuring system for digital measurement of anthropometric dimensions of the body, with the system of manual anthropometry. The results show that the Coefficient of determination (R2) was in 7 measurements over 90%, in 6 measurements over 80%, and in 2 measurements above 74.9%. Cronbach Alpha results of compared variables were all over 90%, which show very strong expected correlations. No significant bias between measurement techniques was shown as Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between measurement techniques with a small number of outliers. Results provide high validity and accuracy of the new portable scanner when correctly used. However, methods of 3D body scanning and classical anthropometry should not be regarded as interchangeable as there are differences in initial body positions due to the implementation of measurement protocols. Further work is recommended to make the two methods more interchangeable, with the possible usage of corrective coefficients.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Influence of Isometric Contraction during Archery Training and Detraining on the Muscles and Hand Grip Strength in Sedentary Youth: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors:

Mohd A. Zolkafi, Norsham Juliana, Sahar Azmani, Abd R. Hayati, Noor A. Monsarip and Nur F. Teng

Abstract: Team sports activities had been found to improve non-athletes physical performance. However, lack of studies reported on individual games. This present study aimed to determine whether isometric contraction of arm during archery intervention respond better to upper and lower body muscles strength and grip strength. Total thirty-four sedentary men had involved; seventeen performed 12 weeks (3x week-1) of archery intervention (AG) and seventeen maintain as sedentary behaviour (SG). Upper and lower body muscles strength were determine at pre and post training, and detraining by isometric contraction test using hand-held dynamometer. Meanwhile, hand grip strength was assessed using JAMAR hand grip dynamometer. The data were analysed using ANOVA repeated measures. Pre intervention muscles and grip strength were similar between groups and increase significantly in archery group (p < 0.05). There was a significant group x time and group x intervention interaction in strength especially upper body and grip strength. Pairwise imposed that archery group improved strength between 17% and 46% compared to baseline, whilst control group varies between -4% and 6% of changes. After detraining of 12 weeks, the muscle strength of intervention group regressed. The present study offers novel but provisional data that lower body strength adaptation is lesser despite comparable adaptation to upper body strength.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Uptake of Pedometer-based Physical Activity: Success and Challenges of a Church based Physical Activity Promotion Programme among Overweight and Obese Adults in Kenya

Authors:

Jane W. Kamau, Peter W. Mwangi and Lucy-Joy Wachira

Abstract: Physical inactivity is among the modifiable risk factors to overweight and obesity. Targeting community units in promoting active lifestyles is beneficial in offering social support. Technological devices such as pedometers can promote physical activity at individual level by providing feedback. This paper presents the success and challenges in implementing an on-going longitudinal pedometer-based PA programme in a selected church in Kenya. Baseline results of 100 participants indicated that 20% were overweight and 26% were obese with BMI scores being higher in those aged 30 years and above. There was significant correlation between BMI and WHR (r=0.67 for females, r=0.88 in males). Physical inactivity among 46 participants in the PA programme was at 52.4%. Most of them work in offices (81%) and use private (71.4%) or public (19%) motorized transport. Majority of them (75%) do not use pedometers to track PA and do not follow guidelines of the programme. Cost, time and competing priorities were cited to hinder participation. The 25% of pedometer users acknowledge their importance and influence to their participation in PA. This paper recommends that the church device strategies to navigate the challenges of physical inactivity while tapping into the resources available within the church settings.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Association between Handgrip Strength and Raw BIA Variables in Adolescents Aged 14-17 Years

Authors:

Paola Alicante, Ada Di Gregorio, Anna M. Sacco, Fabiana Monfrecola, Luca Scalfi and Giuliana Valerio

Abstract: Raw BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis) variables such as phase angle (PhA) or impedance ratio (IR=the ratio between impedance-Z at high frequencies and Z at low frequencies), are both thought to be a proxy of muscle quality in terms of water distribution (ECW/ICW ratio), body cell mass and cellular integrity. So far, few studies have tested the relationship between handgrip strength (HGS) and body composition in adoles-cents. Our study aimed to analyze the variability in raw BIA variables and their association with HGS in 117 male (age 15.7±0.8 years, stature 171.8±7.3 cm, body weight 65.8±10.6 kg, standardized body mass in-dex=BMI-SDS +0.57±0.9) and 130 female adolescents (age 16.0±0.7 years, stature 160.8±5.6 cm, weight 57.3±8.0 kg, BMI-SDS +0.38±0.9). BIA was performed for the whole body and separately for upper limbs and lower limbs, while HGS was measured to assess the isometric strength of upper limbs. HGS was signifi-cantly correlated (r>0.500) with whole-body IR and PhA, and this association was even stronger with upper-limb IR and PhA. In addition, a quite strict correlation emerged between HGS and whole-body BI index at 250 kHz (index of fat-free mass). In multiple regression analysis BI indexes along with IRs or PhAs were in-dependent predictors of HGS, whereas gender and age were not. In conclusion, this study gives some infor-mation about the use of HGS and raw BIA variables in the first two decades of life, suggesting a new ap-proach to assess nutritional status in prevention and public health nutrition.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Resting Energy Expenditure in Elite Female Athletes of Different Sports

Authors:

Olivia Di Vincenzo, Maurizio Marra, Delia Morlino, Enza Speranza, Rosa Sammarco, Iolanda Cioffi and Luca Scalfi

Abstract: An optimal balance between energy intake and energy expenditure is essential for athlete performance, therefore, measuring Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) in athletes might help for providing adequate energy needs. This study aimed to evaluate REE measured with indirect calorimetry in elite female athletes practicing ballet dance, volleyball and swimming and if REE varied among the three sport groups after adjustment for fat-free mass (FFM). Elite female athletes aged 18-35 years who train for at least 16/18 hours per week were recruited. Anthropometry, indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis were performed. Ballet dancers had the lowest FFM and FM in both absolute and percentage values (p<0.05) compared to other athletes. REE was lower in ballet dancers than in volleyball players (REE:1320±139 kcal/die vs. 1538±124 kcal/die, p=0.001) even after adjustment for age. After adjustment for FFM and for both FFM and age, REE was lower in ballet dancers than volleyball players but did not achieve statistical significance. Our study showed that REE in sport is mostly influenced by age and body composition and confirmed that FFM is the major determinant of REE. Further valuations are needed to evaluate if REE could also be influenced by dietary habits as well as by age in which athletes start sport activity.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Influence of the -3826A/G Polymorphism UCP1 (rs1800592) and Physical Activity on Obesity-related Traits in Russian Females with Different Level of Physical Activity

Authors:

Elvira Bondareva, Olga Parfenteva and Valentine Son’kin

Abstract: The association between level of physical activity and -3826A/G polymorphism UCP1 (rs1800592) with obesity-related traits was examined in the group of Russian females. A cross-sectional study of 124 adult females aged of 18-30 years living in Moscow was performed. The genotype of the UCP1 rs1800592 variant was determined. Height, body mass, waist, hip circumferences and body fat mass were measured. Waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR), body mass index (BMI), and body adiposity index (BAI) were calculated. Association analysis revealed that physical activity and the -3826A/G polymorphism of UCP1 (rs1800592) were significantly associated with obesity-related traits. However, physical activity had a greater impact on obesity-related traits. Decreased level of physical activity is associated with increased waist to height ratio, the amount of body fat and body adiposity index. Decreased level of physical activity enhanced the effect of UCP1 gene polymorphism rs1800592 on obesity-related traits in the studied cohort.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Evaluation of the Foot Performance in “Single Leg Squat” Test of Female Athletes using Smart Socks

Authors:

Anna Januskevica, Guna Semjonova, Alexander Oks, Alexei Katashev and Peteris Eizentals

Abstract: Increased plantar pressure on the medial side of the plantar surface of the foot in female athletes is one of the risk factors for lower extremity injuries. Functional tests single-leg squat tests (SLST), are one of the ways to assess changes in foot plantar pressure. The main disadvantage of clinical functional tests is their subjectivity. Moreover, as a rule, these tests are performed under laboratory conditions, which is expensive and time-consuming. This paper demonstrates the evaluation of lower foot behaviour in several SLST variations by the DAid Pressure Sock System (DPSS). The research was based on the cross-sectional study, where a group of healthy female athletes was requested to perform SLST exercises under the supervision of a physiotherapist, while simultaneously the feet plantar pressure was measured with the DPSS. Based on the observations of the physiotherapist, the participants were sorted in the test group and control group, depending on their ability to perform the exercises with or without increased inversion of the foot. Meanwhile, the application of the DPSS provided an estimate of the lateral-medial deviations of the centre of plantar pressure (COP) for evaluation of the feet functionality during the SLST. A clear correlation between the medial shift of the COP value, obtained from the DPSS measurement, and the physiotherapist’s decision on the quality of the SLST was observed. It was observed that the average COP value for the test group was shifted medially, while for the control group the position of COP was shifted laterally. Therefore, the application of DPSS with SLST has a potential for athlete functional testing, as well as for the development of feedback-based training aid in the training environment to help coaches and athletes to monitor the accuracy of the foot position in various squat exercises.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Raw Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) Variables and Physical Fitness in Semi-Professional Basketball Players

Authors:

Giada Ballarin, Fabiana Monfrecola, Paola Alicante, Ada Di Gregorio, Maurizio Marra, Anna M. Sacco and Luca Scalfi

Abstract: Body composition (BC) and physical performance are routinely assessed in athletes. Incomplete data are available on BC and its relationships with physical fitness in basketball players. Our study aimed to evaluate differences in raw BIA variables such as impedance ratio=IR and phase angle=PhA, and their relationships with physical fitness in semi-professional male basketball players compared to controls. Fourteen basketball players (age 21.9±5.3 years, body weight 84.6±11.3 kg, body mass index=BMI 24.6±2.0 kg/m²) and fifty-seven control men (age 22.6±2.0 years, body weight 75.1±9.4 kg, BMI 24.1±2.3 kg/m²) participated in the study. BC was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and physical fitness using handgrip strength (HGS), long jump (L-J), squat jump (SQ-J) and counter-movement jump (CM-J). PhAs were higher and IRs were lower in basketball players for the whole body and limbs. Differences in HGS between groups did not persist after adjusting for body weight, whereas L-J (+32.6%), SQ-J (+35.4%) and CM-J (+28.7%) were clearly higher in the basketball group. HGS, L-J, SQ-J and CM-J significantly correlated with both IRs and PhAs (whole body and limbs). In conclusion, this study shows that raw BIA variables were significantly different in semi-professional basketball players compared to controls and also exhibit significant relationships with physical fitness.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Relationship between Handgrip Strength, Anthropometric and Body Composition Variables in Different Athletes

Authors:

Olivia Di Vincenzo, Maurizio Marra, Delia Morlino, Enza Speranza, Rosa Sammarco, Iolanda Cioffi and Luca Scalfi

Abstract: Handgrip strength (HGS) is a relatively inexpensive, portable and simple functional capacity test which provides information about muscle function. In the field of sport, HGS is largely used as one of the main indicators for testing and monitoring progress in muscle power. This study aimed to evaluate the relation of HGS with both anthropometric and body composition variables in a group of male athletes compared to a control group matched for age, body weight and body mass index. Male athletes aged 17-40 years who train for a minimum of 16/18 hours per week were recruited. Anthropometry, measures of HGS and bioimpedance analysis were performed. HGS and FFM were similar between the two groups, whereas FM in both absolute and percentage values was higher (p<0.05) in controls than in athletes. On the other hand, phase angle (PhA) values clearly increased in athletes by 6.1% (p=0.008) compared to controls. In athletes FFM showed a very strong correlation with HGS (r=0.918, p=0.000), whereas in controls body weight gave the best correlation (r=0.509). Additionally, multiple regression analysis showed that the main predictor of HGS was FFM in athletes and body weight in controls. Our data suggest that FFM was the main determinant of muscular function in athletes, but not in control subjects.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

System for Calculating and Managing Kilocalories Consumed and Spent through Various Domestic, Physical and Sports Activities

Authors:

Rui Claudino, Pedro Passos and Gonçalo Mendonça

Abstract: In times like the ones we are experiencing in the present year of 2020, motor activity is limited, predisposing to sedentary lifestyle and the imbalance between caloric consumption / energy expenditure, favoring the obesogenic phenomenon. To alleviate these circumstances, each individual must be able to obtain information on energy intake and energy expenditure on a daily basis, to control the caloric value of each meal and determine the daily energy expenditure of motor activity. The information on the caloric value of foods can be obtained from the food composition table (Regulation - EU, no. 1669/2011). Information on the caloric expenditure of motor activities is also characterized (Ainsworth, Haskell, Herrmann, Meckes, Bassett, Tudor-Locke et al., 2011). It is only necessary to consider the duration of activities and body mass. To obtain these values and establish, in real time, a comparison between the energy intake and the energy expenditure, we created a system, represented by a responsive WebApp, with the possibility of being accessed by several devices, as well as tablets and mobile phones. The WebApp uses Ajax, jQuery, PHP, SQL and JSON technologies and a MySQL database. The system also includes a backend, supported by a proprietary Model-View-Controller framework, for parameterization.

Area 3 - Sport Performance and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Introduction of a Measurement System for Quantitative Analysis of Force and Technique in Competitive Sport Climbing

Authors:

Dominik Pandurevic, Alexander Sutor and Klaus Hochradel

Abstract: Rapid development and progress in competitive sport climbing lead to increasing media attention and appreciation in the sports world. Therefore, the increase of requirements to climbing athletes are unavoidably. The next step to replace existing and objective training methods, is the digitalization in terms of development of suitable measurement systems. By determining the distribution of forces as well as analysing technique, the presented method enables the evaluation of athlete’s performance. With the aid of this combined system - composed of multiple 3-axis high-precision force sensor embedded climbing holds and a marker-less motion capturing framework - and a depending on the needs and application designed user-interface, coaches get the opportunity to evaluate their athlete’s training outcomes. This sensor technology allows us to detect magnitude and direction of measured force vectors and the associated distribution of the body weight on hands versus feet. Additionally, the recording of athlete’s motion including depth information enables calculation of relevant joint angles and body’s centre of gravity. This measurement system, its modification and base components, respectively, could be used among others for dynamic move analysis in bouldering or video analysis in speed climbing.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

Design of Neck Protection Guards for Cricket Helmets

Authors:

T. Y. Pang and P. Dabnichki

Abstract: Cricket helmet safeguards have come under scrutiny due to the lack of protection at the basal skull and neck region, which resulted in the fatal injury of one Australian cricketer in 2014. Current cricket helmet design has a number of shortcomings, the major one being the lack of a neck guard. This paper introduces a novel neck protection guard that provides protection to a cricket helmet wearer’s head and neck, without restricting head movements and obstructing the airflow, but achieving a minimal weight. Adopting an engineering design approach, the concept was generated using computer aided design software. The design was performed through several iterative processes to achieve an optimal solution. A prototype was then created using rapid prototyping technology and tested experimentally to meet the objectives and design constraints. The experimental results showed that the novel neck protection guard reduced by more than 50% the head acceleration values in the drop test in accordance to Australian Standard AS/NZS 4499.1-3:1997 protective headgear for cricket. Further experimental and computer simulation analysis are recommended to select suitable materials for the neck guards with satisfactory levels of protection and impact-attenuation capabilities for users.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Impact of Auditory Listening on Emotional States in Self-paced Outdoor Running

Authors:

Klemens Weigl, Sinja Becker, Karolin Bosch, Nhien Thai and Andreas Riener

Abstract: Studies have shown that listening to music may evoke positive emotions when running. In recent years, the growing trend of listening to audiobooks is also inevitably influencing running. However, to date, there has been little research on the use of audiobooks in self-paced outdoor running. Therefore, our objective is to investigate whether self-paced outdoor running with auditory stimuli such as music and audiobooks may elicit different emotional states when compared to running with no-audio. Consequently, we adopted a repeated-measures design with three different counter-balanced conditions: music, audiobook, and no-audio. Thereby, thirty-two recreationally active female and male runners participated in a 10-minute running trial in each condition. We assessed the impact of auditory stimuli and emotional states with the Sports Emotion Questionnaire and the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2. Our results of the self-report questionnaires indicate that running with music is rated with substantially greater values when compared to the audiobook condition. Interestingly, our findings uncover no meaningful difference among the self-rated emotional state dimensions anxiety, dejection, excitement, anger, and happiness across all three conditions, respectively. Hence, we conclude that running with no-audio may evoke roughly the same emotional states as when compared to running with music or audiobooks.

Paper Nr: 3
Title:

EMG-pants in Sports: Concept Validation of Textile-integrated EMG Measurements

Authors:

Aljoscha Hermann and Veit Senner

Abstract: Background: Textile-integrated EMG measurements are attractive for professional or keen amateur athletes or can be beneficial in rehabilitation or ergonomics. There are several systems commercially available, but independent validation studies are scarce. This study validates the concept of using textile-integrated electrodes embedded in garments for EMG recordings of the thigh. Method: a self-produced prototype of EMG-pants using stainless steel electrodes was developed. 28 participants performed isometric exercises on an Isomed 2000 device. Measurements of textile-integrated electrodes were compared with measurements using standard electrodes based on the SENIAM-standard. Results: textile-integrated sensors exhibit linear behaviour and measurements are comparable to measurements with standard electrodes. Discussion: the results of this study show that textile-integrated sensors are a valid tool for measuring isometric muscle activation. For certain research topics or for use in training, the easy application and use of textile-integrated EMG may be preferable to more scientific tools. Further work is required to address the validity of EMG-pants for dynamic muscle activation.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Heart Rate and Activity Measured during Volleyball Competition using Wearable Technology

Authors:

Jasper Gielen, Elise Mehuys, Kris Eyckmans and Jean-Marie Aerts

Abstract: Volleyball is characterised by intervals of high-intensity gameplay mixed with periods of relative rest. Monitoring the athletes’ physiology during competition allows us to study the changes in exercise intensity throughout a game. In this study, eight elite male volleyball athletes measured their heart rate and activity during multiple games of the regular season in the Belgian Liga A and B using wearable technology. The data show a significant decrease in the heart rate for set 1 to 4, from 79.1 %HRmax to 73.9 %HRmax. For activity, a decreasing trend is visually observed, but the difference is only significant for set 1 compared to the other sets. Finally, the performance did not vary significantly over the course of the different sets.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

New Approaches to Thermal Protection Wetsuits Development for Long-distance Swimmers Competing in Open Water

Authors:

Alexander Bolotin and Vladislav Bakayev

Abstract: The article provides analysis of modern views on the development of thermal protection wetsuits for swimmers competing in open water. Requirements to generation of the predictive model of wetsuits are assessed in order to determine thermal characteristics of materials to be used to manufacture these wetsuits. Requirements to the simulating model are provided according to modern methods of assessment of thermal properties of material and physiology of athletes competing in open water. It is determined that due to many structural designs, features, thermogenesis dynamics and other devices’ indices, the most promising method of experimental assessment of wetsuit materials’ thermal characteristics is a use of thermal manikins. The article provides classification of modern thermal manikins and their parameters for manufacture of wetsuits.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Computer Spirometry: Research of Respiratory System Functionality and Its Enhancement in Young Swimmers

Authors:

Anna Zakharova, Alexey Gorelov and Tatiana Miasnikova

Abstract: The control of the swimmers' fitness should include an assessment the respiratory system. The aim of the study to evaluate the age features of respiratory system in young swimmers and suggest the methods for respiratory system improvement. Methods: young athletes underwent two tests with MicroLab spirometry; relaxed and forced vital capacity measurement. Findings: (i) young swimmers 10-11 years old with at least 5 years of experience in swimming showed low spirometry indicators (85% of predicted value); (ii) the more experienced and successful swimmers the better their respiratory system developed. High-performance sport swimmers have high level (120 % of predicted value) of all spirometry indicators; (iii) breathing exercises selected for solving the respiratory problems in swimmers improve the respiratory muscles functionality.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Realization of Highly Realistic Broadcast that Includes the Eye Movements of Basketball Players

Authors:

Kanji Kitahama, Takuya Sarugaku and Mitsuho Yamada

Abstract: Sport spectatorship changes with the introduction of new technologies. There are many video editing methods in sports broadcasting, but it is more important to base video presentation on the characteristics of a specific sport. We examined the eye movements of basketball players and found. An essential relationship between their skill level and their eye movements in making successful shots. Analysis of eye movements during free throws revealed that a player was more likely to score if they focused on the support frame line on the backboard not only before the shot but even after releasing the ball. Overlaying reveals the movements of both players and their focus simultaneous analysis. Overlaying technology proved that spectators could watch a player’s focus and body movement specifically at the same time. By recording with 4K video cameras, spectators could easily understand the directions of the players. Furthermore, we proved that the analysis of a player's eye movement in a play situation can be beneficial to the team. As a result of this study, the differences in court awareness during a play according to the skill levels of different players became apparent.

Paper Nr: 4
Title:

Coordinating Abilities Development in Young Hockey Players Taking into Account Power and Weakness of Nervous System

Authors:

Ilsiyar S. Mutaeva, Roman E. Petrov, Zinaida M. Kuznetsova and Aleksandr S. Kuznetsov

Abstract: The purpose of the manuscript is to study the indicators that characterize the development of young hockey players coordination abilities, depending on the strength and weakness of the nervous system properties manifestation to optimize training effects. The strength of athletes nervous system, in comparison with weakness, is characterized by its endurance to the effects of varying intensity physical exertion. There is the difference between the strength and weakness of the nervous system due to the manifestation of the excitation and inhibition process. Young athletes with a weak nervous system can quickly get excited, and then go into a slow state. Athletes with a strong nervous system train well, play effectively, and show stability in the manifestation of coordination abilities. We used the teppeng test method (Russia) to determine the properties of the nervous system. It allows us to quickly and accurately determine the individual characteristics of students nervous system. The main methodological approach is to differentiate training tools taking into account the strength and weakness of young hockey players nervous system. We defined seven significant factors, which perform the function of coordinating abilities markers, taken into consideration in sports training of young hockey players. The first place took the most important marker of coordinating abilities development in training of young hockey players: the age and identification of sensitive periods of coordinating abilities demonstration (1,09±0,02) and dependence on the characteristics of athletes’ nervous system (1,12±0,02). An optimal ratio of the means in physical qualities complex development was the following: endurance – 25%; power 10%; flexibility- 10%; speed -25%; coordination – 30%.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Does Prior Hamstring Strain Injury Affect Hamstring Muscle Activation Patterns in Amateur Football Players? A Feasibility Study

Authors:

Ahmed Ahmed

Abstract: Hamstring stains are very common injuries among athletes. Re-injury rate for hamstring strains is high and factors effecting hamstring re-injury is a research topic of interest. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between prior hamstring strain injury and medial:lateral (M:L) hamstring activation ratio in amateur football players during normal gait. Six male amateur football players with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury volunteered for participation in this study. EMG data from the semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles was recorded across a full gait cycle. The results of this preliminary, feasibility study show no significant difference between mean M:L hamstring activation ratios in previously injured hamstrings (Mean (M)=2.54, Standard Deviation (SD)=1.56) and uninjured contralateral hamstrings (M=3.06, SD=2.86) across the full gait cycle; t(10) = 0.73, p>0.05. Mean M:L activation ratios during ‘Stance phase’ show no significant difference between case and control hamstrings; t(10)=0.88, p>0.05. During ‘Swing phase’ there is no significant difference in mean M:L activation ratios between previously injured and uninjured hamstrings; t(10)=0.61, p>0.05.