icSPORTS 2019 Abstracts


Area 1 - Computer Systems in Sports

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 26
Title:

DJ-Running: An Emotion-based System for Recommending Spotify Songs to Runners

Authors:

P. Álvarez, A. Guiu, J. R. Beltrán, J. García de Quirós and S. Baldassarri

Abstract: People that practice running use to listen to music during their training sessions. Music can have a positive influence on runners’ motivation and performance, but it requires selecting the most suitable song at each moment. Most of the music recommendation systems combine users’ preferences and context-aware factors to predict the next song. In this paper, we include runners’ emotions as part of these decisions. This fact has forced us to emotionally annotate the songs available in the system, to monitor runners’ emotional state and to interpret these data in the recommendation algorithms. A new next-song recommendation system and a mobile application able to play the recommended music from the Spotify streaming service have been developed. The solution combines artificial intelligence techniques with Web service ecosystems, providing an innovative emotion-based approach.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

Simulation Model for Road Cycling Time Trials with a Non-constant Drag Area

Authors:

Eivind Rømcke, Elias B. Sørensen, Petter F. Aas, Lars M. Bardal, Steinar L. Harneshaug, Magnus L. Lian, Luca Oggiano and Scott Drawer

Abstract: In a time trial in road cycling, the choice of equipment has a great impact on the results. The purpose of this paper is to expand an existing model for road cycling to account for changes in drag coefficient with changes in the Reynolds number of the air flow. The model gives a prediction of the performance of a cyclist given a certain equipment setup. The model may be used to test different setups and identify the fastest one for a given race. Simulations with existing models have given a mean absolute error of 3.87% of the total time. Validation of the model in this paper yielded predictions that had a mean absolute error of 3.22%. The model correctly predicts the fastest setup, but further testing and validation is required to show its statistical accuracy. Potential improvements of the model includes improved data sets to increase precision of the inputs, and thereby reduce simplifications and assumptions.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Vision-based Detection of Humans on the Ground from Actual Aerial Images by Informed Filters using Only Color Features

Authors:

Takuro Oki, Risako Aoki, Shingo Kobayashi, Ryusuke Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Yomo and Shinsuke Hara

Abstract: In this paper, we construct a novel sensor network system that can measure real-time vital signs of the human body during exercise even at high speeds and in crowded regions. The sensor network estimates locations of sensor nodes using image processing to extract locations of humans wearing sensors. This paper evaluates the accuracy of human detection by informed-filters using only color features for actual aerial images. To carry out the evaluation, a novel dataset composed of actual images captured using a camera mounted on a drone was created. Experimental results show that significant accuracy can be achieved by the detector. In addition, the number of weak classifiers in a strong classifier can be reduced to 125 without significant degradation of the detection accuracy.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Soccer Players’ Agility: Complex Laboratory Testing for Differential Training

Authors:

Anna Zakharova, Kamiliia Mekhdieva, Vasiliy Krasilnikov and Varvara Timokhina

Abstract: The aim of the proposed study was to evaluate parameters of quickness, coordination and speed that influence the specific agility in soccer. Twenty-four young healthy male soccer players born in 2004 (mean age 14.7 ± 0.7 years) underwent complex laboratory testing including anthropometric measurements, simple and complex visual-motor reaction (VMR), Tapping test, cycling Wingate test and FitLight-trainer tests. Obtained data allowed to estimate speed and power abilities of soccer players, as well as establish interrelations between the measured parameters throughout the tests. Six soccer players demonstrated excellent ability to work in conditions that require high concentration and speed of switching attention (complex VMR < 270 ms) and 4 athletes (complex VMR > 320 ms) – poor level. Results of Wingate test showed, that studied athletes had sufficient power abilities of lower extremities for soccer players in respect to their age (PP/kg – 12.56 ± 3.38 W/kg). 16.7 % (n=4) of athletes showed high results in all FitLight tests. The suggested system of laboratory tests for evaluation of agility structural components so important in soccer, allowed to emphasize athlete’s weaknesses in order to improve it. Thus, testing of non-planned agility should include at least simple and complex reaction rate, coordination tests and speed-and-strength abilities evaluation.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

A Solution of a Mathematical Model Which Simulates Football Game as a Logistics Network

Authors:

Kenan Mengüç

Abstract: Routing is very important in team sports as well as in many parts of daily life. On 01.07.2018, in the World Cup tournament organized in Russia, Spain lost the match with a penalty shootout although it performed a higher number of passes. As a result of the elimination of Spain despite its very high ball possession, the nature of modern football doesn’t necessarily require the multiplicity of passes. It is important to know where the passes are done, rather than high amounts of them. This study has simulated a mathematical model by bringing a different interpretation to the categorization of pass throws.

Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Automated Shoe Last Customization using MATLAB Algorithm

Authors:

T. Y. Pang, K. H. Soh, S. Ryan and P. Dabnichki

Abstract: Footwear plays an essential role in human daily life as properly fitting and comfortable footwear will significantly improve human lives and productivity. Footwear customisation techniques aim to manufacture footwear that fits an individual’s foot geometric. Footwear that exactly fits a person’s foot geometric will provide more support and reduce impact when walking or when doing other activities. A customised shoe last is an important tool used by shoemakers in manufacturing customised shoes. Currently, most customised shoe lasts are made from the moulds of clients’ feet and all the measurements are done manually, which is a tedious and time-consuming process. This project aims to develop a novel MATLAB (2017) algorithm that will shorten the shoe last customization process and do so with higher accuracy. This MATLAB algorithm can reconstruct the foot model to smooth the surface texture and rearrange the three-dimensional (3D) model vertices for easier dimension calculations. It can also locate makers on first and fifth metatarsophalangeal joint automatically for more accurate shoe last design. The shoe last developed using the novel algorithm was used to create its equivalent negative moulds for the manufacturing of carbon fibre cycling shoes. The negative moulds were 3D printed and used to produce a prototype of cycling shoes. Future research needs to consider developing an automated algorithm to create negative moulds to speed up the cycling shoe manufacturing process.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Duration of the Hemodynamic Effects of 6 Weeks Repeated Moderate Aerobic Exercise after Its Cessation

Authors:

Midori Tanaka, Motoaki Sugawara, Yasuo Ogasawara, Tadafumi Izumi, Kiyomi Niki and Fumihiko Kajiya

Abstract: Purpose: We investigated changes in hemodynamic parameters at one-week intervals for 6 weeks after the cessation of the aerobic exercise. Methods: A total of 20 young healthy volunteers were recruited. Using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment, we measured wave intensity (WI) in the carotid artery. The maximum value of WI during a cardiac cycle (W1) increases with an increase in Peak dP/dt. The exercise sessions were 30 min in duration on the bicycle ergometer. Subjects were asked to make an effort to maintain the heart rate during the session at anaerobic threshold (AT) point determined during the pre-exercise cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Exercise sessions were conducted three times per week over a period of 6 weeks, and then stopped. After the cessation of the exercise sessions, WI was measured during CPET at one-week intervals for six weeks. Results: The work rate (WR) at AT point and at RC point, VO2 at RC point increased and remained increased significantly up to 2 weeks after the cessation of the exercise. Oxygen consumption (VO2) at AT point also increased, but remained increased significantly only up to 1 week after. RC point W1 increased and remained increased significantly up to 1 week after.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Modeling and Analyzing Sports Networks Revealed through K-12 Physical Education Systems: Case Studies of Korea, Japan, and the USA

Authors:

Yong-wook Kim and Jinyoung Han

Abstract: This paper investigates the The K-12 Physical Education Systems for Korea, Japan, and the USA. To identify the relations among sports that are covered in the school curriculums, we introduce the notion of sports network where a vertex indicates a sports and an edge represents the relations between two sports. The analysis results on the three sports networks are summarized as follows. The results are as follows. We find that basic movement sports such as gymnastics and fitness are important across the three countries. Also, Korea and the USA are found to focus more on a variety of sports than just covering basic sports. On the other hand, Japan tends to focus on basic sports. Additional study is required to closely analyze the curriculum of primary and secondary schools, which can guide how to balance the different experiences of various sports and training in basic sports.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

PoloTrac: A Water Polo Tracking and Advanced Statistics Application

Authors:

Nathan Verlin, Joey Gullikson, John Mayberry and Daniel Cliburn

Abstract: PoloTrac is an iOS mobile application designed to allow coaches, players, and spectators to record water polo game events as they happen in real-time. PoloTrac contains features of a standard score-keeping application (such as a functioning scoreboard, clock, and foul counter), however, PoloTrac also calculates and produces post-game reports that provide advanced statistical output. This is accomplished by allowing the user to input the location, type, tactic, and outcome of every shot attempted during a match. These reports are intended to aid in determining player performance, team performance and the effectiveness of certain strategical methods on scoring goals. While PoloTrac contains features recommended by top collegiate water polo coaches, these features are designed to be accessible to users from all areas of water polo (from amateur to professional).

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Investigating Relationship between Running Motions and Skills Acquired from Jump Trainings

Authors:

Chanjin Seo, Masato Sabanai, Hiroyuki Ogata and Jun Ohya

Abstract: To identify the difference in performers' motions, this paper investigates the relationship between running motions and the result of evaluating motions during jump training. To clarify the relationship, two experiments were performed using 17 subjects as follows: i) obtaining sequences of human joints during running to evaluate running motions, and ii) obtaining motions during jump training which could skill up the running motions. According to the result of those experiments, we confirmed that whether a running motion is good or not relies greatly on the number of acquired skills.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Peculiarities of Adaptation to Training Loads in Paralympian Cross-country Skiers with Visual Impairment versus Able-bodied Athletes based on Analysis of Heart Rate Variability Data

Authors:

Alexander Bolotin and Vladislav Bakayev

Abstract: An increasing number of people with impaired vision who engage in skiing sports dictates a pressing need to study the athlete’s physiologic functioning in conditions of sensory insufficiency. In the course of the adaptation to training and competition conditions, unlike able-bodied athletes, blind and visually impaired people use compensatory mechanisms to replace the lost visual function. This fact contributes to the development of the structural trace of adaptation to loads and has to be considered in training of this category of athletes. The study involved 42 skiers. The experimental group (EG) comprised Paralympians with visual organ impairment (n=23), whereas the control group (EG) comprised athletes from the Russian Federation national cross-country skiing team (n=19). The research included an examination of the heart rate variability using Kardiometr-MT computer analyzer by TOO Mikard Lana at rest, immediately following the training, and before competition, and an examination using FirstBeat SPORT computer system for determining the training effect and overnight recovery on a daily basis during 7 days of the training camp. The obtained results are indicative of higher “price” of adaptation to the conditions of sports practice in Paralympic skiers with visual function impairment versus able-bodied athletes.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

A Real-time Vital Data Collection System for a Group of Persons during a Variety of Sporting Activities in a Large Outdoor Ground

Authors:

Shinsuke Hara, Takunori Shimazaki, Takuma Hamagami, Yasutaka Kawamoto, Hiroyuki Yomo, Ryusuke Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Okuhata and Fumie Ono

Abstract: We have been developing a wireless vital data collection system named “AccuWiSe,” which is workable for a group of persons during a variety of sporting activities in a large outdoor ground in real-time and reliably. Using the second-prototype system, we have conducted an experiment on the 6th of March 2019, where involving 50 subjects, we have successfully collected vital data from 18 subjects making a variety of sporting activities in a sports ground with size of 60m×90m, in data collection rate of 94.9%, once in 2sec regularly, and for 45min continuously. This paper introduces AccuWiSe and demonstrates the experimental results.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

The Use of IMU-based Human Motion Capture to Assess Kinematic Parameters of Specific Exercises Performed by 400 M Hurdlers

Authors:

Janusz Iskra, Michał Pietrzak and Krzysztof Przednowek

Abstract: The 400 m hurdles is a difficult track and field event, in which the hurdle clearing technique is of crucial importance. In this work, we analyse hurdle clearance while performing two specific exercises: marching and running. We evaluated the kinematic parameters (bending angle and movement speed) of the knee joint and movement trajectory (of the thigh and shank) when performing exercises with the left (“stronger”) and right (“weaker”) lead leg. Two 400 m hurdlers of the Polish National Athletic Team participated in the analysis. The exercises were performed on five 91 cm high hurdles; the third hurdle was filmed using a Motion Capture (Perception Neuron) system with Axis Neuron Pro software consisting of 18 IMU sensors operating at a frequency of 120 Hz. The analysis demonstrated significant difference in the angle parameters of the “stronger” and “weaker” trail leg knee (1), no differences in the movement speed during exercises performed with alternate legs (2) and individual characteristics of movement trajectory in both exercises (3). The results may be used to optimise of the hurdle training process.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms for Somatotype Classification

Authors:

Darko Katović and Miljenko Cvjetko

Abstract: System modeling (identification) in complex systems like kinesiological and biological in general is extremely difficult due to the high dimensions of parameters and usually non-linear functional dependencies. Data Science and especially Machine Learning (Deep Learning) algorithms seem to be quite a good tool for analysis and problem-solving in sports today. Data Science (Machine or Deep Learning) algorithms rely on basic use of statistical algorithms, but extend those with models such as Decision tree, K-means clustering, Neural networks, and Reinforcement learning, creating new algorithms that handle input data by predicting outputs that describe correlation relations or predict future states at time points (regression). This study is an attempt to analyze and research applications of machine learning in Sport science - Kinanthropometry related problem of determining somatotype by using the Microsoft Azure Machine Learning platform and comparing several supervised classifier algorithms (Multiclass Neural Network, Multiclass Decision Forest, Multiclass Decision Jungle and Multiclass Logistic Regression) which were compared versus classical somatotype categorization algorithms with dataset based on the Heath-Carter method Somatotype determination to gain experience and expertise.

Area 2 - Health and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 20
Title:

A Smart Socks System for Running Gait Analysis

Authors:

Peteris Eizentals, Alexei Katashev and Alexander Oks

Abstract: Running gait analysis is an often used tool for running performance improvement and injury prevention due to an incorrect running style. The typical gait analysis methods are unavailable to amateur runners outside of special clinics due to their relatively high cost. Smart socks are a relatively cheap gait analysis method that can be used by amateur runners and professional athletes for running performance improvement. This paper presents a smart socks system for feet plantar pressure measurement during running, as well as methods for characterisation of the acquired plantar pressure measurement for running gait analysis. The validation of the smart socks with a Pedar insole system is described, and the measurement analysis methods are demonstrated by practical running tests. The validation tests demonstrated good temporal and pressure sensing characteristics of the system, while the simplicity of the developed gait analysis methods was demonstrated in the practical tests.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 10
Title:

The Relationship between Body Composition and Physical Activity in Patients with Crohn’s Disease

Authors:

Maurizio Marra, Olivia Di Vincenzo, Iolanda Cioffi, Rosa Sammarco, Luca Scalfi and Fabrizio Pasanisi

Abstract: Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disease associated with malnutrition, inadequate intake, increased energy expenditure, impaired digestion and absorption, leading to a reduction in skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition, phase angle (PhA) and muscular strength in a group of patients with CD. Forty-six male patients, participated in the study and were divided into two groups: 10 physically active patients (A-, age 29.1±8.9 years; weight 68.5±7.2 kg; height 172±4 cm; BMI 23.2±2.7 kg/m2) and 36 sedentary (S-, age 28.9±7.4 years; weight 67.7±8.6 kg; height 174±6 cm; BMI 22.4±2.5 kg/m2). Additionally, 20 healthy control subjects (CONTR, age 30.8±9.2 years; weight 71.4±5.6 kg; height 176±5 cm; BMI 23.1±2.1 kg/m2) participated in the study. S- presented significantly lower FFM values compared to control subjects (p<0.05) but not than A-; whereas no differences were observed for fat mass values between groups. Whole-body PhA was higher in A- than other groups; while upper-limbs PhA was lower in S than other groups and lower-limbs PhA was higher in A- than S- but not compared to controls. Finally, muscular strength resulted statistically lower in S- than C- but not than A-.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

The Need for Data-driven Bike Fitting: Data Study of Subjective Expert Fitting

Authors:

Jarich Braeckevelt, Jelle De Bock, Joke Schuermans, Steven Verstockt, Erik Witvrouw and Jeroen Dierckx

Abstract: The number of cyclists is growing rapidly, for commuting but also as a sport. With this growth, there has been an increasing interest in cycling position. Trainers, athletes and bike vendors acknowledged this and started to perform bike fits. As these experts have different backgrounds and varying levels of expertise, it was hypothesised that this could have an influence on the outcome in terms of the advised position. In this research three cyclists were bike fitted by nine different bike fitting studios. It was hypothesised that, as different bike fitters use varying techniques and have different experience levels, the cyclist would be advised a different optimal position by these different bike fitters. The preconceived hypothesis was confirmed as the range of advised positions in both saddle height and setback was up to 3 cm. Data-driven bike fitting can help bring down these considerable differences amongst fitters and will be discussed in the last chapter.

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Body Composition and Segmental Bioimpedance Phase Angle in Elite Volleyball Players

Authors:

Olivia Di Vincenzo, Maurizio Marra, Rosa Sammarco, Enza Speranza and Luca Scalfi

Abstract: Because of the great interest in the evaluation of body composition (BC) in athletes, this study aimed to estimate BC variables like fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) of volleyball players compared to a group of healthy subjects. 12 female volleyball players (VP, age 23.8 ± 3.6 years; weight 63.0 ± 5.1 kg; stature 170 ± 4 cm; BMI 21.9 ± 1.3 kg/m2) and 22 healthy females as control group (CG, age 23.6 ± 2.0 years; weight 60.7 ± 4.8 kg; stature 167 ± 5 cm; BMI 21.9 ± 1.3 kg/m2), participated to the study. BC was evaluated by skinfold thickness and whole-body and segmental bioimpedance analysis (BIA) measurements were assessed. BC resulted significantly different in VP than CG (FM (kg) = 15.7 ± 2.7 vs. 18.0 ± 3.0, p=0.036; FM (%) = 24.8 ± 3.0 vs. 29.5 ± 3.8, p=0.001; FFM (kg) = 47.4 ± 3.5 vs. 42.8 ± 3.6, p=0.001). These data confirm previous observations on FM % in VP. Moreover, assessing segmental BIA-derived phase se angle (PhA) appears to be sensible in these evaluations.

Area 3 - Signal Processing in Human Movement

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

A Case Study of Alpine and Freestyle Snowboard Turn Measurement

Authors:

Ayuko Saito, Kazuto Miyawaki and Naofumi Tsuji

Abstract: This study investigated the reaction force from the snow surface affecting a snowboarder during alpine snowboarding turns and freestyle snowboarding turns. Alpine snowboards and freestyle snowboards have different widths, shapes, flexes, and hardnesses. Snowboarder motions during turns using an alpine snowboard and freestyle snowboard differ. Therefore, analyzing the reaction force from the snow surface affecting the snowboarder gliding on an actual snow field is expected to be valuable for clarifying differences of snowboarder motions during alpine snowboarding turns and freestyle snowboarding turns. We developed a new measurement system for this study to measure the reaction force from the snow surface during snowboarding. Furthermore, we conducted experiments with a professional snowboarder gliding on an actual snow field using alpine and freestyle snowboards fitted with the measurement system. The center of pressure during alpine snowboarding showed that the right foot placed on the snowboard in the counter travel direction side was used mainly to press the snowboard edge during front-side turns. The left foot placed on the snowboard in the travel direction side was used mainly to press the snowboard edge during back-side turns. The center of pressure during freestyle snowboarding showed that both feet were used to press the snowboard edge.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

Analysis of Sensor Locations on Human Body for Wearable Sensor based Activity Classification during Fast Bowling in Cricket

Authors:

Jayamini Ranaweera and Pujitha Silva

Abstract: This paper focuses on determining best body sensor position among calf, thigh, upper trunk and forearm when classifying Run Up, Delivery Stride and Follow Through phases during fast bowling in cricket by the usage of a machine learning model. Nine-axis Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) were used to collect data at 350Hz and Madgwick’s quaternion based algorithm was used for orientation estimation. The study also focused on determining best quaternion to be considered for such activity classification requirements in fast bowling. Three fast bowlers with Mixed type bowling action were considered for the study. A sliding window with 200 samples/window with 50% overlap collected eight, time domain statistical features from the sensor data and Principal Component Analysis was used to reduce dimensionality of the feature set. A linear kernel based Support Vector Machine classified the features into the three main phases and five-fold cross validation was used to determine model performance. The results indicate that fourth quaternion on calf or forearm is the best quaternion and body position to be considered for activity classification of fast bowling action in cricket.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Biomechanical Characteristics of Elite Female Australian Rules Football Preferred and Non-preferred Drop Punt Kicks

Authors:

Emily E. Cust, Kevin Ball, Alice J. Sweeting and Sam Robertson

Abstract: While Australian Rules kick biomechanics has been researched considerably, there is yet to be focus specifically on women participants. Elite female Australian Rules football drop punt kick characteristics were collected from 15 elite female participants for both the preferred and non-preferred legs. All participants undertook a 20-kick protocol captured by a 3-dimensional motion analysis camera system. Preferred leg kicks produced faster foot velocities prior to foot-ball contact, 18.0 ± 1.2 m.s-1 preferred, 16.2 ± 1.3 m.s-1 non-preferred, and faster ball velocities post foot-ball contact, 24.7 ± 1.4 m.s-1 preferred, 21.6 ± 2.0 m.s-1 non-preferred. Differences in movement patterns of the hip and knee joint segments were shown between kick leg preferences; hip angular velocity 94.4 ± 75.9 °/s preferred and 126.2 ± 66.3 °/s non-preferred, knee angular velocity 1384.8 ± 415.2 °/s preferred and 1013.6 ± 230.2 °/s non-preferred. Research results identified the changes in elite women’s drop punt kick mechanics in comparison to leg preference, which can be viewed against senior and junior men’s Australian football kick analysis findings. The current research information could be of benefit to practitioners in linking targeted field coaching cues and conditioning programs tailored to identified kick skill and movement deficiencies.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Apparel Concept Design for Analysing Range of Motion at the Hip to Prevent Injury

Authors:

B. Land, C. Morgan and R. S. Gordon

Abstract: Range of Motion (RoM) testing can identify the underlying causes of an athlete’s pain at the hip, be it muscular (extra-articular) or damage to the joint itself (intra-articular). The purpose of this study was to design a device which could detect characteristics of hip injuries from the motions and forces applied to the joint. Hence supplying a coach with a method to analyse and diagnose injuries in real time. A design to measure the RoM and gait at the hip was developed and later manufactured for testing on recreational athletes. Findings supported the device in its potential to identify gait events and competitive motion at the hip, despite the accuracy measuring less than that of the two-degree accuracy of the goniometer, competitive performance analysis within the study is evidence of a conceptual design. With development, apparel such as ours has the potential to supplement a coach’s quantitative analysis, identifying responsible motions and performance metrics at hip responsible for injuries at the joint and the lower limbs using correlative data between motion and the onset of injuries.

Area 4 - Sport Performance and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Variation in the Uncoupling Proteins Genes in Different Sports

Authors:

Elvira Bondareva, Olga Parfenteva and Valentine Son’kin

Abstract: Uncoupling protein (UCP) genes appear to be promising candidates for studying the effect of 'thrifty' genotypes on various aspects of modern human life, starting from susceptibility to obesity and cardiometabolic diseases and ending with sports talent. The study aims at studying directions of selection for polymorphic systems of the genes UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 among athletes engaged in various sports. The study involved 268 people: 197 athletes (males: n=140; females: n=57) and 71 non-athletes as a control group (males: n=38; females: n=33). Buccal epithelium was used as a sample of biological material. Genomic DNA isolation and genotyping of samples for polymorphisms of UCP1 (rs1800592), UCP2 (rs660339), UCP3 (rs1800849) were performed at the premises of Lytech (Moscow). Differences in the distribution of genotype frequencies of the UCP1 and UCP2 genes between the subgroups within the sample of athletes are statistically significant (χ2 = 21.2 p = 0.006 and χ2 = 24.06 p = 0.002, respectively). Among the athletes representing various kinds of sports, the subgroups of aerobic, mixed cyclic and team sports demonstrate the directional selection of carriers of 'thrifty' genotypes of the studied genes. The subgroup of martial arts is characterized by the opposite direction in selection.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Exercise Testing of Elite Rowers: Comparison of Methods and Protocols

Authors:

Kamiliia Mekhdieva, Anna Zakharova and Varvara Timokhina

Abstract: The aim of the study was to search for appropriate, informative, accessible and reproducible method for testing of elite rowers. Six healthy elite rowers (5 male and 1 female) aged 24±7 underwent two types of exercise testing (ET). Exercise performance of rowers was evaluated by means of: i) standard maximal RAMP cycle test, which is considered to be the gold standard measurement in sports medicine; ii) ET specific for rowers with the use of Concept rowing machine. Both protocols of ET were designed according to International Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription Tests were conducted with simultaneously HR monitoring (Garmin) and breath-by-breathe gas-exchange analysis with the use of desktop metabolic analyzer Fitmate PRO (Cosmed, Italy). A range of physiologic parameters were under consideration: VO2, HR, attained power, minute ventilation and anaerobic threshold (AT). Undertaken comparative analysis demonstrated no significant differences in major analysed physiologic parameters during both tests. The obtained data enabled us to conclude that cycling ET with the use of maximal ramp incremental protocol is an informative, accessible, reproducible and appropriate method for testing of elite rowers. Conducting both exercise tests – cycling and rowing – may highlight the limiting factors of specific physical workability in rowers.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Methods of Increasing Statokinetic Stability in Racers using Normobaric Hypoxia and Neck Muscle Training

Authors:

Alexander Bolotin, Vladislav Bakayev and Leonid Buynov

Abstract: In recent years, against the background of a significant improvement in the equipment of pilots, improvement of technical characteristics of cars, a significant increase in the speed of movement of race drivers on the highway has been noted. At the same time, the psychophysiological capabilities of athletes remained virtually unchanged. This discrepancy, in turn, led to the fact that when the dynamic factors of the race and the speed of movement on the track are excessively affected, the athlete's body is affected by forces that impair not only its functional state, but also negatively affect competitive activity. To improve statokinetic stability of the experimental group subjects, a within a month normobaric hypoxia training course in combination with cervical muscle exercises was used. The control group subjects were given “fake” normobaric hypoxia courses and performed no dedicated cervical muscle exercise. The results of the study showed that the experimental group subjects who received normobaric hypoxia in combination with cervical muscle exercise demonstrated a reliably improved continuous cumulation of Coriolis acceleration (CCCA) tolerance time (versus initial measurements). Besides, there was a decrease in the manifestation degree of vestibulosensory, vestibulovegetative, and vestibulosomatic reactions, which generally indicates improvement of CCCA tolerance in this group of subjects. athletes.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

Investigating the Perceived Effectiveness of Digital Technology for Elite Athlete Support in Golf

Authors:

Aimée Mears, Ieuan Phillips and Josh Sumner

Abstract: Digital technologies have enabled vast and varied amounts of data to be captured on elite athletes. The data is intended for use by athletes, coaches and support team e.g. physiotherapists, sports scientists for many purposes including performance development or injury prevention. However, the usefulness of such digital technologies and the information gathered is only beneficial if deemed effective by all those involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of digital technology for elite athletes’ development and support from athlete, coach and support team perspective in golf. Interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and support team for a sport where digital technologies were used to facilitate training. The results of the study uncovered four categories that helped to understand how effectiveness was perceived which were “The Influence on Psychological Well-being and Proprioception”, “Measurement Uncertainty”, “Environment” and “Type, Ease and Frequency of Use”. Exploring these categories provided insight into the best practices for digital technology integration into elite athlete support and ultimately can help shape future developments of digital technologies.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Using 3D Motion Capture to Analyse Ice Hockey Shooting Technique on Ice

Authors:

Mikael Swarén, Quirin Söhnlein, Thomas Stöggl and Glenn Björklund

Abstract: This study investigates the feasibility to use a passive marker motion capture system on ice to collect 3D kinematics of slap shots and one timers. Kinematic data were collected within a volume of 40x15x2 m by 20 motion capture cameras at 300 Hz, a resolution of 12 megapixels and a mean residual for all cameras of 3.4±2.5 mm, at a distance of 11.6 m. Puck velocity, blade velocity, ice contact time and distance to the puck were analysed for ten consecutive shots for each technique, for two professional ice hockey players. The total mean puck velocity was 38.0 ± 2.7 m/s vs. 36.4 ± 1.0 m/s. (p=0.053), for one timers and slap shots respectively. One player had higher puck velocity with one timers compared to slap shots 40.5 ± 1.0 m/s vs. 36.9 ± 1.0 m/s (p=0.001). Puck contact time was longer for slap shots than for one timers, 0.020 ± 0.002 s vs. 0.015 ± 0.002 s, (p<0.001). The motion capture system allowed continuous kinematic analyses of the puck and blade velocities, ice contact times and detailed stance information. The results demonstrate the possibilities to use motion capture systems to collect and analyse shooting kinematics on ice, in detail.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Coach’s Actions Quality Perception by Powerlifters-Veterans in “Coach-athlete” Dyad

Authors:

Galiya Ldokova, Kadriya Volkova and Zinaida Kuznetsova

Abstract: The research deals with psychological interaction between a coach and a powerlifter from a veteran group. We define the dominant actions of a coach concerning the athlete, who is older than 40 years old. We received the results of 30 powerlifters (older than 40) with the help of the questionnaire survey. Athletes estimated 13 criteria in the aspect of real and desired actions of a coach. Among real behavioral trainer’s techniques the most dominant are the following: “helping during the competitions (warming-up, marching on platform)” (the average grade-9,4), “mastering own methodology of training athletes” (the average grade-8,8), “attendance of the competitions” (the average grade-8,6) and “my individual characteristics taking into consideration (health state, mood, difficulties in life and others)” (the average grade-8,6). The priority positions of the desired coach’s actions have the following items: “helping at the competitions” (warming-up, marching on platform) (the average grade-10), “mastering own methodology of training athletes” (the average grade-9,9). The athletes of the veteran age group are experienced enough, but they need team work “coach-athlete”. This conclusion can improve “nature” understanding of the relations between a coach and a powerlifter, who is older than 40. It can also provide the role and the importance realization of a coach’s personality in a sports career of a veteran athlete.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Swimmers’ Training Process Control Taking into Consideration Typology of Bioenergetics

Authors:

Nataliya Moshkina, Ildus Gibadullin and Zinaida Kuznetsova

Abstract: The research deals with the specific characteristics of swimmers’ training management taking into account typologies of bioenergetics. For an effective and quick functional state and reserve capacities of athletes’ organism diagnostics we held the test according to “D&K – TEST” express-diagnostics methodology created by Karlenko V.D. We created a block system of swimmers’ sports training control. The block system includes the stages and the main components of management structure, where great attention is paid to information gathering concerning swimmers’ functional training taking into account their typology of bioenergetics. We studied the ratio of swimmers’ bioenergetics typology at the training stage according to the years of study. We estimated the level of functional state and swimmers’ organism reserve capacities depending on their bioenergetics type. Specially selected training means and methods for swimmers were used in accordance with their typology of bioenergetics and it provided their physical readiness improvement, characterizing the effectiveness of competitive activity. We received the results of swimmers’ functional state and reserve capacities of their organism, combined according to three types: aerobic, mixed and anaerobic.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Elite Water Polo Athletes

Authors:

Olivia Di Vincenzo, Maurizio Marra, Ada Di Gregorio, Annarita Caldara, Antonino De Lorenzo and Luca Scalfi

Abstract: Elite water polo athletes participate in several high-intensity bouts undergoing heavy training programs. An optimal athletic performance is a result of many factors, including changes in body composition (BC) during the sport season. Aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between BC and physical fitness in an elite water polo team national first league. Ten water polo men athletes (17-26 years) were studied. Data were collected during the regular season of the 2018/2019 Italian Men's Water Polo First League. BIA parameters, resistance (R) and phase angle (PhA) were measured at 50 kHz and BC was evaluated. The physical fitness tests performed were hand grip strength (HGS), long jump (LJ) and squat jump (SJ). Our study showed that LJ, SJ and HGS were positively related to FFM (Fat-Free Mass) and LJ was also positively related to whole-body phase angle but not to upper- or lower-limbs. This preliminary study underlines a close correlation between physical fitness and FFM.