icSPORTS 2018 Abstracts


Area 1 - Computer Systems in Sports

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Analysing Team Formations in Football with the Static Qualitative Trajectory Calculus

Authors:

Jasper Beernaerts, Bernard De Baets, Matthieu Lenoir, Kristof De Mey and Nico Van de Weghe

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the Static Qualitative Trajectory Calculus (QTCS), a qualitative spatiotemporal method based on the Qualitative Trajectory Calculus (QTC), for team formation analysis in football. While methods for team formation analysis are mostly quantitative, QTCS enables the comparison of team formations by describing the relative positions between players in a qualitative manner, which is much more related to the way players position themselves on the field. To illustrate the method, we present a series of examples based on real football matches of a 2016-2017 European football competition. With QTCS, team formations of both an entire team as well as a smaller group of players can be described. Analysis of these formations can be done for multiple matches, thereby defining the playing style of a team, or at critical moments during a game, such as set pieces.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Simulation of Snowboarding on Snow Surface Modelled with Particle Elements

Authors:

Tatuya Yoshida, Akihiro Hojo and Humiyasu Kuratani

Abstract: One approach for an efficient development of snowboards is quantification of prototype performance. A simulation model which represents the discrete behaviour of snow with particle elements is developed to evaluate snowboarding performance of prototypes. The particle behaviour is calculated using the discrete element method (DEM). A snowboard is considered to be a rigid body in the simulation. Four snowboards with different sidecuts are modelled to evaluate the influence on the turn. The simulation is able to confirm the difference of trajectory due to the sidecut radius. The smaller sidecut radius increases the attack angle of the board. As the result, lateral force acting on the board increases and the turn become sharply.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Distributed Crowd-based Annotation of Soccer Games using Mobile Devices

Authors:

Bruno Barros, Carlos Serrão and Rui Lopes

Abstract: Soccer is one of the most loved sports in the world. Millions of people either follow the sport or are actually involved in its practice. Soccer also moves huge financial amounts every year and therefore teams always thrive to be better than the competition. New technologies have become a common place both in the preparation of the games and on the analysis of the games after they are concluded. In this paper, the authors will present a developed system, based on the usage of distributed mobile devices, that will enable the annotation of soccer matches, either in real time or after the matched is concluded (through the observation of other media). The capture of relevant events in the game can be used to better analyse the game and the performance of individual players fostering improvements and better decisions in the future. The application is implemented in the Android platform so that it can be easily installed by typical soccer fans empowering them as match annotators. This crowd of annotators, although not experts, can collectively provide a robust and rich annotation for soccer matches.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Kinematic Analysis of Hurdle Clearance using a Mobile Device

Authors:

Bogusław Rymut, Tomasz Krzeszowski, Krzysztof Przednowek, Karolina H. Przednowek and Janusz Iskra

Abstract: This paper presents a human motion tracking method using a mobile device. The proposed method may be used as a tool to measure hurdle clearance kinematic parameters and help coaches to evaluate the athlete’s technique. The video recordings were made under simulated starting conditions of a 100 m women hurdle race. Kinematic parameters were estimated based on an analysis of images sequence from a mobile device. The images were recorded on a HTC M8s smartphone with a resolution of 1920x1080 pixels and with a frequency of 30 Hz. The system was tested on two mobile development platforms and three image sequences. The proposed method does not use any markers, special clothes or other estimation support techniques. The analysis conducted showed that the smallest errors were calculated for the height of centre of mass, while the biggest errors were observed for the bending angle of the knee of the trail leg.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Long-Distance Running Routes’ Flat Equivalent Distances from Race Results and Elevation Profiles

Authors:

Dimitri de Smet, Michel Verleysen, Marc Francaux and Laurent Baijot

Abstract: Running routes’ elevation profiles affect their runnability and therefore athletes’ average speeds: route distances alone are not sufficient to predict or evaluate running times. This is an issue for race preparation, race strategy, performance comparison and runner workload planning anytime the ground is sloping. This paper proposes a methodology to establish route equivalent distances expressed as a function of their elevation profiles. The same expression can be used to compute gradient adjusted speeds either for athlete pacing during races or to analyze their performances afterward. The approach is first based on race results and addresses the problem of attendees’ level disparities by evaluating races and athletes at the same time using a race performance model. Subsequently, this paper use polynomial and piecewise linear regressions on the instant slope along the routes to express equivalent distances. They match previous studies with constant slopes and extend to the case of varying slopes.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

Detection Accuracy of Soccer Players in Aerial Images Captured from Several View Points

Authors:

Takuro Oki, Ryusuke Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Yomo and Shinsuke Hara

Abstract: To realize real-time vital sensing during exercise using wearable sensors attached to players, a novel multi-hop routing scheme is required. To solve this problem, image assisted routing that estimates the locations of sensor nodes based on images captured from cameras on UAVs is proposed. However, it is not clear where is the best view points for player detection in aerial images. In this paper, the authors have investigated the detection accuracy according to several view points using aerial images with annotations generated from the CG-based dataset. Experimental results show that the detection accuracy became best when the view points were slightly distant from just above the center of the field. In the best case, the detection accuracy became very good: 0.005524 miss rate at 0.01 FPPI.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Key Factors and Financial Value of Sponsors Integration via Social Media Channels in Professional Sports: An Empirical Analysis

Authors:

Katharina Schöttl and Florian Kainz

Abstract: The study presented here aims to open up the topic of sponsor integration in social media marketing in professional sports. Using a mixed methods design, both the current status in social media and the perspective of the sponsored and sponsors are surveyed. Critical success factors are identified from the results of the substudies. A basis for determining the monetary value of these measures was established. This resulted in a suggestion for a new platform for sponsors in the context of digitalization processes.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

Detection of Possible Match-fixing in Tennis Games

Authors:

Kim Yong-wook, Jinyoung Han and Choi Seoung-rak

Abstract: This study seeks ways that can immediately detect match-fixing in a tennis match. We first explore the number of rallies observed in tennis matches of the ATP and WTA leagues to determine whether they follow the Benford’s law. We also artificially manipulate practice games to investigate whether the number of ralleys observed in manipulated matches also follows the Benford’s law. Experimental results demonstrate that the numbers collected from fixed games and the expected frequencies predicted by Benford’s Law are different. Based on the lessons learned, we develop a machine-learning-based model for detecting whether a given match is fixed or not. Our model shows a high accuracy in detecting fixed tennis matches, which has a great utility for fair tennis play.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

An Alternative Method for Kinematic Modelling Applied to the Human Joint Position

Authors:

Bibiana Hernández-Hernández, Cesar Ramos-Villa, Dulce Martinez-Peon, Eduardo Torres-Sarmiento and Ernesto Olguín-Díaz

Abstract: The kinematic description of a mechanical structure is an essential part of the motion analysis. In human-like structures, kinematics works as a biomechanical base for the analysis of the human motion in areas like rehabilitation and sports. While nowadays the standard is based on the Denavit-Hartember convention, which has been defined for industrial mechanical use, this approach may need virtual reference frames when having non orthogonal systems and complex geometries like human body. This work presents a kinematic analysis focused on lower limbs using an alternative to the Denavit-Hartenberg convention for reference frames assigment in kinematic modelling, called the GRyMA methodology. Finally, the paper also shows Matlab c - based simulation of a CAD model emulating the human lower limbs motion. The kinematic analysis could be used in the assessment of the joint position of individuals with some walk or sports disability, and therefore also in the correct treatment or posture improvement.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Body Composition and Segmental Phase Angle in Physically Active Men

Authors:

M. Marra, R. Sammarco, E. Speranza, O. Di Vincenzo, D. Morlino, I. Cioffi, L. Scalfi and F. Pasanisi

Abstract: Body composition (BC) is strongly related to the overall health and fitness levels of athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate BC and in particular phase angle for whole body and for the different body segments in males elite athletes compared with a normal-weight control group. 27 young men participated in the study: 9 ciclysts (age 28.8±3.5 years; weight 70.2±5.6kg; BMI 21.2±1.2 kg / m2), 9 dancers (age 19.2±1.3 years; weight 63.3±5.8 kg; BMI 20.8±1.0kg /m2) and 9 young normal-weight men (age 18.9±2.8years, weight 70.7±11.6 kg, BMI 22.9±3.3 kg / m2.) Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was performed at 50 kHz (DS Medica) early in the morning. Phase angle (a bioimpedance variable related to nutritional status) was used in order to evaluate differences in fat free mass (FFM) characteristics among the groups. As far as BC, cyclists showed the highest values of FFM whereas dancers and controls were similar. Fat mass (FM), both in absolute value and in percentage, is significantly lower in dancers and cyclists than controls. Total phase angle and leg phase angle were similar in Cyclist, dancers and controls. Regarding arm phase angle, there were no significantly differences between groups. This study shows that the sports activity, regardless of the type of sport, had a significant effect on BC variables respect non-athletic young men.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

Evaluation of Body Composition in Competitive Male Marathon Runners

Authors:

M. Marra, A. Di Gregorio, P. Alicante, O. Di Vincenzo, R. Sammarco, E. Speranza, I. Cioffi and L. Scalfi

Abstract: The marathon is a long-distance running event with an official distance of 42.195 km. Different anthropometric variables were related to endurance running performance such as weight, body fat, the sum of skin-fold thickness and circumferences of limbs. Aim of this study was to compare antropometric measurements, multifrequency (MF) BIA and phase angle between competitive marathon runners and sedentary adult individuals. Fifty-seven subjects were studied, 28 Marathon runners and 29 Control subjects. Anthropometry variables and skinfold thicknesses were determined according to standard procedure. MF BIA was performed using a multi-frequency analyzer. Biolectrical impedance index (BI index) and MF BIA ratios were calculated for the whole body. Competitive marathon runners had lower body weight and BMI compared to control subjects. There was a significant decrease of arm and forearm circumferences in the marathon runners, with no difference between groups with respect to thigh circumference and calf circumference; they also exhibited lower skinfold thicknesses. Mean MF BIA ratios and phase angle were increased in the marathon group for the whole-body than control group. The use of simple methods, that are properly applied, can provide useful information for the study of body composition. In particular, the combination of anthropometry and BIA can provide a series of information that concerns both muscle mass and fat mass of the body.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

Analysis of Cristiano Ronaldo’s Free Kick using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Authors:

Prashanth S. Shankara

Abstract: The aerodynamics of football has come into prominence in the last decade with the advent of new ball designs, particularly for the world cup. Significant work into the behaviour of a football has been conducted through wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this study, the now-famous free kick from Cristiano Ronaldo against Spain in the recent World Cup was studied using transient Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) methods in the CFD code, Simcenter™ STAR-CCM+™. Simulations were performed on the Telstar 18 ball from the 2018 tournament and the Jabulani ball from 2010, both for the free kick and a knuckleball scenario. Side forces suggested that the Jabulani would have curved more towards the goalkeeper, offering a chance for the kick to be stopped. Knuckle ball simulations suggested stable behaviour for Telstar compared to instability on the Jabulani. Simulations were also compared against wind tunnel data from literature to validate the methodology. The results show that ball type and behaviour is often a factor in the type of kick attempted, player confidence in execution and ultimately the outcome of the game.

Posters
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

The Experimental Method of Middle Distance Runners Hypoxic Training

Authors:

Zinaida Kuznetsova, Alexander Morozov and Alexander Kuznetsov

Abstract: The study is focused on the problem of various hypoxic effects use in the training process of athletes specializing in middle distance running. The purpose - to develop and experimentally justify the method of interval hypoxic training in the annual cycle of middle distance runners training. Hypothesis: the development and application of interval hypoxic training method, which provides the consistent use of hypoxia, adequate structure and volume of different directions training loads in weekly microcycles, will improve the training efficiency and middle distance runners competitive activity effectiveness.The method of hypoxic training includes hypoxic and information tools:Hypoxicator "Peak"(Russia) realizes exogenous type of hypoxia and consists of series connected: mask, the body (filled with absorber of carbon dioxide) and a breathing bag. Diaphragm mask "Elevation training mask"(USA) implements respiratory type of hypoxia. To estimate athletes heart rate monitoring we used the method of obtaining information wireless portable system GPS Garmin Forerunner 310XT (Garmin, USA).The concentration of oxygen in the blood was investigated using pulse oximeter "Oxy-Pulse"(Russia). Hypoxic training technique of athletes specializing in middle distance running is scientifically proved, developed and experimentally checked.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Comfortable Measurement of Ski-turn Skill using Inertial and Plantar-pressure Sensors

Authors:

Seiji Matsumura, Ken Ohta and Toshitaka Kimura

Abstract: This paper proposes a comfortable and easy way to measure skill in ski turns with inertial and plantar-pressure sensors. The inertial sensors were used to log the motion of skis, and the plantar-pressure sensors were used to measure plantar-pressure distribution and analyze how the feet transmit force to skis. One intermediate skier and one expert skier, both adult males, participated in this experiment. They skied in short turns in six trials totally. According to the results of the experiment, the data for skidded and carved turns were clearly different. Therefore, we consider that our proposed measurement method will enable skiers to conveniently analyze their ski-turn skills on their own.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

Resting Energy Expenditure and Body Composition of an Elite Water Polo Team

Authors:

M. Marra, R. Sammarco, E. Speranza, O. Di Vincenzo, I. Cioffi, D. Morlino and F. Pasanisi

Abstract: In the field of sport, it could be useful to evaluate the changes in body composition and energy consumption that may occur mainly in elite athletes. (NIH Consensus Statement 1996, Gudivaka R 1999). Bioelectrical impedance is a non-invasive and rapid method for the evaluation of body water, since both in literature and in scientific evidence a close correlation was found between the variation of the distribution of water in the various body compartments (Marra M 2005, Marra M 2009) and changes in muscle strength and hence the performance-sports competitions. On the other hand, the assessment of resting energy expenditure in athletes could define more accurately the dietary requirements of athletes. Water polo is a dynamic and intermittent team sport, requiring a high anaerobic effort. In the pool, players swim from an extreme to the other of the swimming-pool and perform high-intensity actions, such as jumping, wrestling and sprinting. The aim of this study was to evaluate resting energy expenditure and body composition in an elite water polo team national first league and to compare them with a control group.

Area 2 - Health and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 22
Title:

A Novel Automated Algorithm for Computing Lumbar Flexion Test Ratios Enhancing Athletes Objective Assessment of Low Back Pain

Authors:

Francisco Carrillo-Perez, Ignacio Diaz-Reyes, Miguel Damas, Oresti Banos, Victor Manuel Soto-Hermoso and Alejandro Molina-Molina

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Low Back Pain is a common muscular disorder that most adults would experience over their lives. In healthy patients at the end of a lumbar flexion occur a phenomenon called the Flexion Relaxation Phenomenon. Ratios between different phases of lumbar flexion can help diagnosing LBP patients. The aim of this work is to create an automated algorithm to compute this ratios helping to discriminate between healthy and LBP athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 21 participants were recruited: 10 LBP and 11 healthy. Participants were tested with Lumbar Flexion Test for evaluating LBP. sEMG were recorded in low back muscles. RESULTS: Athletes diagnosed with LBP showed ratios lower than 1.5. For healthy participants we observed results greater than 1.5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our results are contained between rates found in literature. Our algorithm can help the diagnose of athletes with a non-intrusive method and with little knowledge of sEMG analysis.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 10
Title:

RUNAMIC: Dynamic Generation of Personalized Running Routes

Authors:

Krishna Kumar Thirukokaranam Chandrasekar, Redouane Arroubai, Gerwin Dox, Samnang Nop, Pieter Stroobant, Jeroen Stragier, Kristof De Mey and Steven Verstockt

Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel mobile running application, Runamic. Runamic allows to generate dynamic routes, starting from any point in the city, whilst taking user preferences into account. A user can choose how long he would like to run alongside his preferred points of interest, such as waterways, parks and/or tourist hotspots. Based on these preferences, the characteristics of the road network/environment and feedback on previous runs, a route is generated. The suggested routes are smooth, avoiding too many turns and overlapping route segments. The generated routes can be changed dynamically. After the run, the user has the ability to rate the generated route, which will influence future route generation. In most cases, the graph and R-tree based algorithm generates nice smooth routes, leading to very positive user feedback on the dynamic routing aspect.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Instrumented Wobble Board for Testing Functional Ankle Instability

Authors:

Nicolaj Mentz Larsen, Niclas Hvolby Andersen, Mathilde Hansen and Uffe Laessoe

Abstract: Lateral ankle distortion is one of the most frequent sports injuries. In approximately 40% of the incidents, the individual will develop chronic ankle instability. Ankle instability is not detected consistently using traditional balance measures and alternative approaches are warranted. It was hypothesized that an instrumented wobble board may serve as a tool to detect people with functional ankle instability. Twenty-two young people with perceived ankle instability and a gender and age-matched control group were included in the study. The participants were standing on one leg for 30 seconds on an instrumented wobble board - with and without visual performance feedback. The primary outcome measures were the standard deviations of the tilt angle in the medio-lateral and the anterior-posterior directions. The tilt variation in medio-lateral direction was significantly larger in the instability group: with feedback 1.65 (0.72) vs. 1.14 (0.31) and without feedback: 1.95 (1.01) vs. 1.20 (0.35). Similar, but not statistically significant, differences were seen in anterior-posterior direction. Participants with chronic ankle instability display increased tilt variation when challenged in one-leg stance on a wobble board. The tilt inclination measured by an instrumented wobble board may serve as a supplementary objective measure for the clinical identification of people with functional ankle instability.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

The Use of Physical Activity Trackers in Portuguese Adolescents and Adults

Authors:

Vítor P. Lopes and Carla Sá

Abstract: The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths (Ding et al., 2016). Estimates from 2012 indicated that not meeting physical activity recommendations is responsible for more than 5 million deaths globally each year (Lee et al., 2012). Nowadays, sedentary behaviours are highly prevalent, and data from adults in high-income countries suggest the majority of time awake is spent being sedentary (Matthews et al., 2008). This study aimed to investigate the use of physical activity trackers in Portugal, in particular how often people use it and how they use it to monitor exercise/physical activity.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

The Effects of Various Customised Mouthguard Designs on Physiological Parameters and Comfort in Male Boxers

Authors:

Raya Karaganeva, David Tomlinson, Susan Pinner, Adrian Burden, Rebecca Taylor and Keith Winwood

Abstract: Athletes, who use mouthguards (MGs) as a protective device, often experience obstruction of airflow and interferences with performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three custom–made MGs (MG1, MG2, MG3), which differed in design and thickness, on respiratory flow and blood lactate during exercise. Fourteen elite male boxers (Age: 26 ± 8 yr; Mass: 80±11) performed newly developed sport specific protocol under laboratory conditions on four occasions – without a MG and with each of the three MGs. The exercise consisted of 4 boxing rounds of 3 mins, with a minute rest after each round. Breath-by-breath analysis (METALYZER® 3B, Cortex) showed that there were no differences in the uptake of oxygen (p > 0.157) between the four conditions. Likewise, the use of different MG did not affect blood lactate accumulation (p = 1.00). However, at the end of the first round the minute ventilation was higher when MG3 was used (86.2 ± 17.5 L/min) compared to MG2 (71.7 ± 13.2) and having no MG (73.7 ± 16.4) (p = 0.002). The fact that a negative effect was not determined on physiological responses could further encourage players to use MGs during both training and competition.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

The Influence of Exercise Load and Blood Flow Restriction on the Recovery of Neuromuscular Strength following Resistance Exercise

Authors:

Charlie Davids, Truls Raastad, Glen Lichtwark, Jeff Coombes, Jonathan Peake and Llion Roberts

Abstract: Low load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction is a means of achieving skeletal muscle adaptation without high levels of mechanical stress and reduced training volume. The present study demonstrates that low load blood flow restriction exercise achieves similar levels of neuromuscular fatigue to high load resistance exercise at 60 minutes post-exercise, despite an approximate 25% reduction in exercise volume. This suggests that blood flow restricted exercise may be used as a tool for athletic populations looking to manage total training stress and achieve muscular adaptations in the most effective manner.

Posters
Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Plantar Fasciitis Prevention Technique based on Data Aggregation from Computer Diagnostics

Authors:

Vladislav Bakayev and Alexander Bolotin

Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the solution of the task on justification of plantar fasciitis prevention technique based on data aggregation from computer diagnostics. It is found that the assessment of the degree of damages in a condition of the plantar surface of the trial subject’s foot that was made based on data aggregation from computer diagnostics in 3D format may be a basis for not only determining the disease extent but also for determining the necessary means, for special training, as well as for regulating a load on feet during the recovery of the foot functions. When using the plantar fasciitis prevention technique based on data aggregation from computer diagnostics, it is revealed that in conditions of its occurrence in an athlete, the two-phase dynamics of change of the foot condition indicators had been registered: the initial decline in functions followed by their increase to the original positions. This evidences the high efficiency of plantar fasciitis prevention technique based on data aggregation from computer diagnostics.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

The Triple Role of Individual Mouthguard in Athlethe Health

Authors:

Simonetta D’Ercole, Diego Martinelli and Domenico Tripodi

Abstract: Prevention of oral pathologies, traumatic events and gnatological disorders is a cornerstone of modern dentistry. Oral health may limit athletes ability, both during training and competitions. Careful analysis indicates that the athletes' health can be at risk in a wide range of sports disciplines. Role of sport dentist is crucial, and a dental specialist should be included in the team that follows the athlete. In addition, it is crucial to alert the whole sporting world to the importance of using individual mouthguards. The custom-made mouthguard, is an effective device helping to avoid dental trauma. Additionally it can provide the trasmission of such substances as chlorhexidine, fluorine and casein to control the ecological variation of the oral cavity induced by the sport itself. It also offers a psychological support and better occlusal stability, which have a positive impact on sports performance. Thus an individual mouthguard should be adopted in all disciplines and sports categories where there is a potential risk of dental injuries. But it should be designed and manufactured by specialized dentists and dental technicians.

Area 3 - Signal Processing in Human Movement

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 39
Title:

Inter-session Test-retest Reliability of the Quantified Y Balance Test

Authors:

William Johnston, Martin O’Reilly, Garrett F. Coughlan and Brian Caulfield

Abstract: The Y Balance test is the most common dynamic balance assessment used in clinical practice and research. However, the traditional measure of performance, the reach distance, fails to provide detailed information pertaining to the control of balance during the reach task. Recent research has demonstrated that a single wearable inertial sensor can capture detailed information pertaining to balance performance during the Y balance test, not captured by the traditional reach distances. To date, no research has been conducted investigating the inter-session test-retest reliability of the inertial sensor instrumented YBT. Thirty -two young healthy adults, aged between 18-40 were recruited as part of this study. Participants completed the quantified YBT protocol during two testing sessions, separated by 7-10 days. The findings from this study demonstrated that 26/36 (anterior), 31/36 (posteromedial) and 33/36 (posterolateral) quantified variables demonstrated good-excellent intra-session test-retest reliability. These findings suggest that the inertial sensor quantified YBT can provide a reliable measure of dynamic balance performance. Further research is required to investigate the capability of the quantified YBT to identify individuals at risk of injury/ disease and track recovery/ response to intervention.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 44
Title:

Entropy Measures Detect Changes in Movement Variability: Sliding across a Novel Slide Vibration Board in Ice Hockey Players

Authors:

J. F. Gisbert-Orozco, B. Fernández-Valdés, V. Illera-Domínguez, S. Rodríguez-Jiménez and G. Moras

Abstract: Slideboard (SB) exercise is a multifaceted, closed kinetic chain that imparts low-impact forces to the lower extremities and is used to enhance strength, endurance, proprioception, agility, balance, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness (Diener, 1994; Weber and Ware, 1998). Additionally, based on previous research we can use the SB exercise as a specific and practical off-ice test to evaluate performance in speed skating, prescribe exercise training and monitor adaptations due to training programs (Piucco et al., 2016, 2017). Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of WBV as an environment constraint (VEC) and without vibration (NV) when performing an slide exercise across SVB using SampEn analyses.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Investigation of Hand Forces Produced While Playing Golf: With the Use of New Weareble Sensor Technology to Assist in the Hand Function of Patients with and without Hand Arthritis

Authors:

Sara Holland, Sydney Robinson, Lauren Straatman, James Dickey, Louis Ferreira and Emily Lalone

Abstract: Arthritis is the most prevalent chronic health condition without a cure, affecting 1 in 5 adults in Canada (The Truth About Arthritis, 2018). This chronic condition makes playing sports, such as golf, very difficult for those affected. Arthritis causes pain, stiffness, and results in permanent damage and deformation in the joints leading to decreased mobility (The Truth About Arthritis, 2018). Therefore, the objective of this study is to systematically analyse the hand forces produced from various golf grips at the distal-phalanges of the hand-grip interface using a mid-iron club in individuals with and without hand arthritis using new wearable sensor technology.

Area 4 - Sport Performance and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Imagery Improves Reaction Time in Elite Sprinters

Authors:

Muhammad Talha Iftikhar, Cliff J. Mallett and Mohammad Asghar Javed

Abstract: Motor imagery has been found to be helpful for developing skills in sport. Motor imagery (MI) helps an athlete to visualize simple or complex motor activities in the absence of physical practice. Few studies have inspected the effects of motor imagery on trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of motor imagery on reaction time. Differences in reaction time can make a difference in terms of the overall performance (time, ranking). Twenty-four male and female National elite athletes (12 male; age: 22.92+1.73 years and 12 female; age: 22.67+1.67 years), who participated in this study, were classified into two (2) groups. Participants were classified according to data from a pretest in which they recorded their reaction time (ms) on starting blocks and a 30 meters race time (s). The control group (N=12) carried out the practice physically and the imagery (intervention) group (N=12) firstly carried out the practice mentally and then physically with the control group. Motor Imagery was conducted on the experimental group for fifteen (15) minutes every day for two (2) weeks. At the end of two (2) weeks, a post-test was conducted to examine any intervention effects. The data were analyzed by a paired t-test. The findings revealed that imagery group athletes improved more than the control group (p < 0.05). A couple of the athletes from the physical practice group (no intervention) showed better results than the imagery group, but the researcher observed the potential reason behind this enhancement might have been due to the competitive atmosphere created due the experiment for which they put their best to beat the other group in the post test.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Training Process Modeling of Hammer Throwers Taking into Account Peculiarities of Stress Adaptation

Authors:

Alexander Bolotin and Vladislav Bakayev

Abstract: The article considers the solution of the forecast problem to improve the efficiency of the training process of hammer throwers taking into account the peculiarities of their adaptation to the load. This problem was solved by computer modelling. To solve this problem, restrictions were set on the control and managed parameters. The number of parameters that were entered into the model was determined by the methods of expert assessments. These parameters were adjusted in the process of modelling the dynamics of the training system in time on a personal computer. Basing on the results of forecasting it was revealed that taking account the peculiarities of stress adaptation in hammer throwers training led to doubled number of sportsmen’s who fulfilled the qualification norm successfully.

Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Ergogenic Effects of Pop Music on Endurance Performance in Hot Conditions among Physically Active Individuals

Authors:

Eng Hoe Wee, Xiao Ying Lai and Hui Yin Ler

Abstract: Music has been reported by numerous researchers to elicit psychological, psychophysical, and ergogenic effects. Some researchers found that music could improve endurance performance, others reported progressive impairment in endurance performance with increasing ambient temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pop music on endurance performance in hot conditions (35°C) among physically active individuals. Twenty-eight physically active subjects (14 males, 14 females, age=19.57±1.7 yrs, height= 164.8±8.3 cm, weight= 58.6±8.8 kg, VO2max = 42.5±7.7 ml.kg-1.min-1) were recruited to participate in this randomized cross-over study: with music (WM) and no music (NM) trials. For each trial, subjects cycled at 60 rpm for the first 20 minutes followed by maximal cycling effort in the last 20 minutes to determine the distance achieved. The workload of 40 minutes exercise were maintained at 55% Pmax. Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout the experimental trials. Experimental trials were separated by at least 5 days apart. Results revealed that there was no significant interaction between music and cycled distance [F(1, 26) = 1.372, p=0.252, ηp2=0.050]. Results also revealed that similar physiological responses (HR and VO2) and RPE were found in both WM and NM trials. In conclusion, there is no sufficient evidence to support that pop music could enhance endurance performance in the heat among physically active individuals.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Testing of Power Abilities in High Level Soccer Players: Quantitive and Qualitive Assessment Methods

Authors:

Anna Zakharova, Anastasia Berdnikova and Kamiliia Mekhdieva

Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate power in high level soccer players by means of Wingate cycling test and performance analysis for vertical jumps. Thirty-two male professional soccer players (mean age 25.29±5.4 years, height 180.22±6.63 cm, weight 73.8±7.07 kg) underwent Wingate test and jump tests with the use of force plate with ongoing analysis of four types of jumps (countermovement jumps, squat jumps, single leg jumps on the right and left legs, CMJs with arms swing). We found: (i) high-level soccer players’ norms are PP>13 W/kg, AP30/kg>11W/kg; (ii) 34.5% of studied athletes demonstrated high level of power; AP30/kg>11W/kg showed only 13.79%; 10.34% showed significant power decrement by 30th second of Wingate-test (∆Р15/kg–Р30/kg>4W/kg); (iii) countermovement jump height was 35.94±4.2 cm, height of the jump with additional arms swing was 44.72±5.04 cm; (iv) motor disbalance of antagonist muscle work of lower extremities; (v) parameter of average power in Wingate test correlated with height (r=.476, P<0.01), flying time (r=.463, P<0.01), maximum force for take-off (r=.393, P<0.05) in countermovement jump with arms swing. Anaerobic Wingate test and performance analysis for vertical jumps allow estimation of athletes’ fitness weak aspects and undertaking appropriate timely amendments to trainings.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Running Video Matching Algorithm Focusing on the Periodicity and Linearity of Running Motion

Authors:

Yoshiteru Yamamoto, Keisuke Doman, Yoshiya Hotta and Yoshito Mekada

Abstract: This paper proposes a framework for frame-by-frame matching of a performance video pair focusing on the periodicity and the linearity of running motion toward running form analysis support. The proposed method is composed of four steps: 1) 2D pose estimation, 2) correspondent phase detection, 3) linear matching, and 4) expansion matching. In the experiments, the proposed method could accurately match performance videos for different runners compared with the previous method. We confirmed the effectiveness and the usefulness of the proposed method.

Posters
Paper Nr: 26
Title:

Biomechanical Comparison of Waltz Movements of a World Competitive Ballroom Dance Champion Couple and Ordinary Dancers

Authors:

Yasuyuki Yoshida, Arunas Bizokas, Katusha Demidova, Shinichi Nakai, Rie Nakai, Mio Suzuki and Takuichi Nishimura

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate and compare the world competitive ballroom dance champion couple with ordinary dancers, specifically examining interaction during waltz movements. The current world competitive ballroom champion couple, one man and one woman, participated in this study. Ordinary competitive dancers participated, one man and one woman. Waltz movements were recorded at 240 Hz using an Xsens system (MVN, Xsens Technologies, Netherlands). The ballroom sequence dance steps for the waltz were used with the music as a trial. (1) Preparation Step (123123), (2) Natural Spin Turn (123123), (3) Second half of Reverse Turn (123) Distinct interaction during pair dancing was found in the second step for the first half of the natural spin turn. In addition, the longer step length might be an important skill for competitive ballroom dancers. Another interaction of pair dancing was apparent for pelvis lowering movement.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

Modeling Educational Activities of the Coach

Authors:

Ludmila Nazarenko, Zinaida Kuznetsova and Alexandre Kuznetsov

Abstract: Sports activities is one of the most complex manifestations of human capabilities that contribute to spiritual, moral, physical and aesthetic development. A deliberate, deeply personalized, systematic training load contributes to the improvement of intellectual, cognitive sphere; the growth indicators of muscle strength, speed, endurance, agility and other motional – coordination qualities, improve functional status, improve moral and volitional qualities of the personality. The aim of this work is a theoretical justification of the coach educational activities modelling as a significant component of the training process.