icSPORTS 2015 Abstracts


Area 1 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Low Aerodynamic Drag Suit for Cycling - Design and Testing

Authors:

Live Spurkland, Lars Morten Bardal, Lars Sætran and Luca Oggiano

Abstract: The focus on garment aerodynamics is increasing in high velocity sports where aerodynamics is crucial such as cycling, speed skating and alpine skiing. Recently published research show that a low drag suit manipulating the flow around the body can considerably enhance an athlete’s performance. This project seeks to improve the Norwegian sportswear manufacturer Trimtex Sport AS’ pro cycling kit using the best currently available textiles. Changes from the original design are made with the intention of optimizing fabric zones and seam placement. Drag measurements on cylinder models, cyclists and full-scale mannequins of the upper and lower body were conducted in the wind tunnel. The reduction in aerodynamic drag was significant on cylinders, and final power savings of 8 watts due to drag reductions was obtained on the jersey and 5 watts on the bib shorts for a cyclist racing at 50 km/h.

Area 2 - Computer Systems in Sports

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Aerodynamical Resistance in Cycling - CFD Simulations and Comparison with Experiments

Authors:

Luca Oggiano, Lars Morten Bardal, Lars Sætran and Live Spurkland

Abstract: The present work shows a comparison between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations obtained using the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver STARCCM+ from CD-Adapco and experiments carried out in the subsonic wind tunnel at NTNU. The models tested in the wind tunnel (a mannequin and real cyclist in static position) were 3D scanned using a 3D scanner, consisting 48 single-lens reflex cameras surrounding the object in three heights (low/ground-midi-above). A hybrid meshing technique was used in order to discretize the surface and the volume. Polyhedral cells were used on the model surface and in the near volume while a structured grid was used in the rest of the domain. An unsdeady RANS approach was used and the turbulence was modelled using the Menter implementation of the k-? model. No wall functions were used and the boundary layer was fully resolved. The first part of the paper focuses on the mannequin while in the second part the comparison between the experimental results and simulation on the real cyclist are presented. An overall good agreement between the simulations and the experiments was found proving that CFD could be a complementary tool to wind tunnel testing.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Cricket Catching Drills - Application of a Redundantly Actuated 2-DOF 3-UPS Parallel Platform to Increase the Efficacy of Providing Catching Practice Drills in Cricket

Authors:

Ajinkya Arun Bhole and Ravi Kant Mittal

Abstract: 'Catches win matches' is probably the oldest adage in Cricket. A fielder may only be required to take one catch in an entire game, but his success in taking that catch may have a considerable effect on the outcome of the match. Application of technology to sports equipment has a great impact on performance and has a potential to revolutionize the entire sporting culture. This paper presents an application of a redundantly actuated 2-DOF 3-UPS Parallel Chain Platform to boost the efficacy of providing catching practice drills by maintaining a degree of realism. The basic idea is to swerve a ball shot from a Ball Shooting Machine onto the platform, in random or desired directions by changing the orientation of the platform instantaneously as the ball hits it. We have formulated a method to calculate the velocity and angle of launch of the ball, required to provide practice drills for high catches and simulated the same.

Area 3 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Measuring Respiration and Heart Rate using Two Acceleration Sensors on a Fully Embedded Platform

Authors:

Johan Vertens, Fabian Fischer, Christian Heyde, Fabian Hoeflinger, Rui Zhang, Leonhard Reindl and Albert Gollhofer

Abstract: We present a novel system which measures the respiration rate using two three-axis accelerometers strapped to the chest and the back of a person. Respiration and heart rate are used as a measurement to determine an athlete’s fitness level during the exercise phase. Common respiration rate measurement methods require devices which are mostly stationary or at least clunky and uncomfortable to wear for an extended period of time. By using techniques such as differential measurement, pre-measurement optimization, adaptive filtering and peak detection we are able to obtain respiration rate even when the athlete is running fast. Our system is low-cost, small, and, by using a digital signal processor, fully capable of processing the data in an online way. Results are compared with a reference spirometer and have shown a very low normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) down to 1.42 %. Additionally, the heart rate of an athlete can be measured with the same sensor setup and similar methods.

Area 4 - Computer Systems in Sports

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 37
Title:

Modeling Oxygen Dynamics under Variable Work Rate

Authors:

Alexander Artiga Gonzalez, Raphael Bertschinger, Fabian Brosda, Thorsten Dahmen, Patrick Thumm and Dietmar Saupe

Abstract: Measurements of oxygen uptake and blood lactate content are central to methods for assessment of physical fitness and endurance capabilities in athletes. Two important parameters extracted from such data of incremental exercise tests are the maximal oxygen uptake and the critical power. A commonly accepted model of the dynamics of oxygen uptake during exercise at constant work rate comprises a constant baseline oxygen uptake, an exponential fast component, and another exponential slow component for heavy and severe work rates. We generalized this model to variable load protocols by differential equations that naturally correspond to the standard model for constant work rate. This provides the means for prediction of oxygen uptake response to variable load profiles including phases of recovery. The model parameters were fitted for individual subjects from a cycle ergometer test. The model predictions were validated by data collected in separate tests. Our findings indicate that oxygen kinetics for variable exercise load can be predicted using the generalized mathematical standard model, however, with an overestimation of the slow component. Such models allow for applications in the field where the constant work rate assumption generally is not valid.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Optimizing the Design of the Landing Slope of the Zao Jumping Hill

Authors:

Kazuya Seo, Yuji Nihei, Toshiyuki Shimano, Ryutaro Watanabe and Yuji Ohgi

Abstract: This paper describes a process for optimizing the design of the landing slope of the Zao jumping hill. The features of the landing slope that we considered were the construction fee, the safety of the jumpers on landing, the length of the flight distance such that it makes it an interesting spectacle, and the difficulty for unskilled jumpers. We regard these features as objective functions. The findings can be summarized as follows: it is possible to control the four objective functions by changing the profile of the landing slope; the safety on landing is almost equivalent to the difficulty for unskilled jumpers; there is a trade-off between the length of the flight distance and the safety on landing and the difficulty for unskilled jumpers; the construction fee is influenced by the horizontal distance between the edge of the take-off table and the K-point; and the safety on landing, the flight distance and the difficulty for unskilled jumpers are influenced by the ratio of the height difference and the horizontal distance between the edge of the take-off table and the K-point.

Area 5 - Sports Medicine and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 43
Title:

Longitudinal Study on the Detection and Evaluation of Onset Mild Traumatic Brain Injury during Dual Motor and Cognitive Tasks

Authors:

Hung Nguyen, Fouaz Ayachi, Etienne Goubault, Catherine Lavigne-Pelletier, Bradford McFadyen and Christian Duval

Abstract: Currently, concussions are detected by observing physical and cognitive symptoms such as dizziness, disorientation and loss of consciousness that are often associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Evaluation methods such as neurocognitive tests and neuroimaging are often performed post-concussion. However, these methods can be expensive and cumbersome to use. In this study, we developed a new testing protocol using a markerless motion capture system to quickly monitor the cognitive and motor dysfunction of football players over the course of the season. This protocol utilized a dual-task paradigm to identify kinematic measures that could detect the subtle changes in the motor and cognitive function of players due to mTBI. Four high school football players (2 healthy and 2 with history of concussion) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were asked to navigate a staged obstacle course with and without an N-Back (N-2) cognitive task. Positional data of 23 limb segment nodes were recorded using markerless motion tracking system. Data collection lasted less than 5 minutes, with minimal preparation time. The results showed that walking speed, median frequency of sacrum in the vertical direction and step width variability during straightway walking were strongly associated with the presence of mTBI.

Area 6 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 49
Title:

Predictors of Timed “Up-and-Go” Test in Elderly with Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors:

Priscila Marconcin, Margarida Espanha, Flávia Yázigi and Júlia Teles

Abstract: Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) and aging are conditions that can compromise physical function and quality of life of human being. Thus, performance-based tests and specific self-reported measures related with KOA and general health-related quality of life (QoL) should be used in clinical intervention with elderlies. The study aim was to investigate which factors best predict the performance of the Timed “up-and-go” test in the elderly people with KOA. Eligibility criteria were age ≥ 60 years and uni or bilateral KOA. Subject performed physical tests [Timed “up-and-go” (TUG), Six Minutes Waking Test (6MWT), Five Repetition Sit-to-Stand Test (FRSTST)], Handgrip, 6 meters gait speed, Standing Balance], and filled self-reported questionnaires [Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5F) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)]. Pearson and Spearman coefficients were used for correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis to identify the significant predictors of Timed “up-and-go”. Results: Final sample included 67 patients, 69±6 years of age. Timed “up-and-go” can be explained by two models. The best model (explained 80.7% of variance) included FRSTST, 6MWT, Gait Speed, KOOS ADL and EQ-5D-5F Self-Care variables. Conclusion: Functional strength, mobility, gait speed, and perceived limitation in activities of daily living influenced the TUG performance.

Area 7 - Computer Systems in Sports

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 52
Title:

Development and Implementation of Mobile Apps for Skier Training System

Authors:

Kim Yong Wook and Kim Ju Yong

Abstract: Most skiers who use smartphones carry them when they ski. Lately internet connection is getting better and there can be active information exchanges between applications installed in smartphones and online operating servers. In addition, with the use of GPS, smart phones can precisely track skier’s locations and record the real time information of the gyroscope sensors connected to the Bluetooth of smart devices. This study aims to design and develop a mobile application which can monitor ski trails and analyze ski postures with the help of smartphones technology. For this reason, our mobile application was developed based on Android SDK 4.2 version using Java, and C-language. To measure the information of the skier’s posture, a belt with several gyroscope sensors was developed. It records the postures of the skiers who wear the belt when they move their body from side to side and back and forth. Through the application’s calculations of the skier’s speed and directional turning track data, skiers can know what modifications they need to make in order to improve their techniques and adjust their postures. This mobile application can exchange information with online operating servers with the use of 3G and Wi-Fi. In addition, it operates as a background program in smartphones and starts recording and analyzing when skiers start skiing at designated ski resorts.

Area 8 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 76
Title:

Measuring Temporal Parameters of Gait with Foot Mounted IMUs in Steady State Running

Authors:

G. P. Bailey and R. K. Harle

Abstract: The continuous sensing of running biomechanics provides an opportunity to monitor changes in sporting technique for performance or injury prevention. Inertial sensors are now small enough to integrate into footwear, providing a potential platform for continuous monitoring that does not require additional components to be worn by the athlete and that can be used to assess foot kinematics during running as well as temporal parameters. While temporal parameters of gait are already widely used, they may be combined with the measurement of foot kinematics assessed using a wearable, IMU based, foot mounted Inertial Navigation System. Assessment of foot pose at times of foot-ground interaction (such as heel-strike and toe-off) is likely to require excellent accuracy in the face of changing technique and speed. We present and evaluate a threshold free algorithm for assessing temporal gait parameters using a foot mounted IMU. We also investigate the impact of errors in temporal gait parameters on the measurement of foot kinematics at these time points. We find that our algorithm has good accuracy, for example we find a mean error 0.47 ± 3.84ms for toe-off estimation at a running velocity of 3.4ms−1 . We also find that the magnitude of this error has little affect on some spatial parameter measurements, such as frontal plane foot angle mean error 0.93 ± 2.07◦ at 2.3ms−1 ). However, for others the error in temporal parameters produces larger changes, for example sagital plane foot angle (mean error 4.11◦ ± 3.70 at 2.3ms−1 ).

Area 9 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 85
Title:

Systematization of the Knowledge of Relevant Signals in Evaluating the Surf Zone - Proficiency in Positioning in the Surf Zone Lineup and in Wave Catching

Authors:

João Miguel Antunes Brogueira and César José Duarte Peixoto

Abstract: Regarding the beach safety of surf zone users, this study aims to systematize the “Wave Knowledge” of the most efficient lifeguards, the surfing masters, by classifying the indicators relevant for recognizing spacial and temporal patterns and risk factors. This is evidenced by the proficiency in motor tasks essential both to the sport and rescuing in the surf zone: positioning in the lineup, catching waves/ returning to shore (when “Wave judgement” is needed). We start by reviewing the literature from Surf Sciences, followed by an analysis of manuals of Surfing as a sport. Then we researched the prospective procedures of experts in extreme surf conditions and observed behaviour of top surfers in competition, to put up a classification of the visual signs used (sea and swell, wind, tide, seabed configuration, currents, and details of breaking waves’ forms). Based on the acquired data, we built a Questionnaire to rank the “relative importance of the signals”, which surveyed 11 surf national champions/ coaches (male/female practitioners with over 15 years’ experience). Results show that experienced surfers evaluate all elements of the “waves-currents system”, although the location, type and intensity of maritime currents (except under conditions of small waves), and the swell characteristics (angle of arrival to coast, height, period) stand out as the most important. The importance of the signals varies according to the wave height and the wave break types. The respondents also attend configuration of seabed and coast profile in their evaluation. As for the surf quality, they consider the characteristics of the coastal wind and temporal characteristics of the tides. For the strength of the surf and the take-off point, the focus is on sections and wave face profiles (slope, thickness).

Area 10 - Sports Medicine and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Acute Changes in Carotid Arterial Blood Velocity Immediately after the Cessation of Exercise

Authors:

Midori Tanaka, Motoaki Sugawara, Yasuo Ogasawara, Kiyomi Niki and Tadafumi Izumi

Abstract: Background and purpose: Changes in hemodynamic parameters following exercise have been widely reported. However, the changes in carotid arterial blood flow have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to examine acute changes in carotid arterial blood velocity immediately after the cessation of exercise. Methods : Twenty-four young healthy men were registered ( age: 21.3 ± 1.6 years ). The cardiopulmonary exercise test was conducted starting at an initial workload of 20 W and lasting for 2 minutes with a strength ergometer ; thereafter, the workload was increased stepwise by 20 W at 1-minute intervals. Electrocardiogram was continuously monitored. The criteria for the endpoint included increase of heart rate to [(220-age) ×0.8 (bpm)], and achievement of maximum fatigue or the impossibility of continuing exercise. Then cooling down was conducted at 20 W following exercise for 150s. We measured the blood velocity in the carotid artery at 60s and 120s after the cessation of exercise with a Doppler system. The data were analyzed by the repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post test. Results : Reductions in systolic / diastolic blood pressure were significant at 60s and 120s after the cessation of exercise (93 ± 3 / 84 ± 3% , 88 ± 4 / 84 ± 3%, respectively ) compared with the values at the cessation of exercise (100%). The reduction in heart rate was also significant at 60s and 120s after the cessation of exercise (84 ± 7% and 78 ± 7%, respectively ). On the contrary, the blood velocity increased to 121 ± 24% and 116 ± 27% at 60s and 120s after the cessation of exercise , respectively. Conclusions : Immediately after the cessation of exercise, blood pressure and heart rate decreased as previously reported. However, carotid arterial blood velocity increased significantly.

Area 11 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 13
Title:

Web Application for Support in Basketball Game Analysis

Authors:

Tomislav Horvat, Ladislav Havaš and Vladimir Medved

Abstract: The development of ICT technologies and usage in various fields enable faster development and analysis of large amounts of data, but also a way of saving the data. Stored data are easier to search, edit and analyse. Stored data, usually stored in databases, can be analysed and useful information can be drawn. As Internet communication becomes the dominant way in exchange of data and information, many application and expert system were developed. In this paper is shown AssistantCoach expert system, which was developed for supporting basketball coaches in making decisions and analysing games. It describes a new algorithm for game win percentage prediction and allows users to make notes about opponent players and teams, but also notes about their own players, trainings and different types of game analysis. Based on input parameters (IPE in selected time period, predicted parameters) the expert system calculates game win percentage. By increasing or decreasing parameters, coaches are able to find the highest percentage for the win and to use time before game to correct team mistakes. In addition to the algorithm for game win percentage, the expert system offers their user a number of different analysis and statistics. Expert system uses every input game boxscore and other notes as a new material to learn. Described methods and algorithm are verified on a selected sample of basketball games and selected time period.

Area 12 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Extraction of Some Relevant Instants from EMG Signal

Authors:

Sofia Ben Jebara

Abstract: In this paper, an algorithm to estimate key instants in EMG signal during pre-motrice and motrice phases is developed. It detects automatically i) the onset of muscle activity when an explicite recommendation of preparation is dictated (pre-motor onset), ii) the onset of effective muscle contraction (motor onset) and iii) the instant of muscle contraction desactivation (motor offset). The algorithm is based on statistical thresholding and counting the number of samples exceeding the threshlold. The counting is ensured by elaborated temporal scanning in forward and backward directions. The threshold calculus is based on statistics of the EMG signal during muscle activity and muscle rest. The algorithm is illustrated for the superficial flexor muscle during a handgrip exercice and is validated using subjective visual inspection and objective evaluation (error rate). The results revealed that relevant instants in EMG signal are well estimated.

Area 13 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 23
Title:

VTS | Football - Tracking and Analysing Football Shots

Authors:

Andoni Mujika, David Oyarzun, Jeser Zalba, Aitor Ardanza, Mikel Arizaleta, Sara García and Amalia Ortiz

Abstract: This paper describes VTS | Football, a tool for tracking and analysing football shots. The system tracks the trajectory of the ball using two synchronized cameras, removing all the geometries that are not similar to a ball and extrapolating the position of the ball when it is hidden by the goal keeper. Once the trajectory is obtained, the user can analyse the shot using a tool that has been developed for this purpose. He/she can organize the training sessions, follow the evolution of a player, compare performances of different players and visualize the shot in a 3D virtual environment. To make the visualization smooth, an interpolation algorithm based on least squares methods has been developed and to make the visualization attractive a football player and a crowded stadium have been added to the virtual scene.

Area 14 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Miniaturizing a GNSS Device for Real Time Match Analysis - A Feasibility Study over the Integration of GNSS Device for Real Time Match Analysis

Authors:

Corrado Cervellati, Alessandro Di Felice and Stefano D'Ottavio

Abstract: The GNSS devices for monitoring athletic performances are becoming more and more a common tool for football team, in order to better shape athletic training and have a more complete view of individual performances. However, technological limits, but also legal ones, restricted the use of these devices only to training sessions and post-processing analysis. This study wants to demonstrate the benefits and the change in match analysis with the introduction of a noninvasive GNSS device integrated into a shin-guard.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

CRICKET INJURY PREDICTION AND SURVEILLENCE BY MOBILE APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY ON SMARTPHONES

Authors:

Najeebullah Soomro, Habib Noorbhai, Mariam Soomro, Meraj M. A. Chayya and Ross Sanders

Abstract: Name of the mobile Application: CricketPredict. Category of the mobile Application Health and Fitness: Platform Android 4.0 or later, Cost Free. The aim of this paper is to present the methodology for the development of a mobile App on injury surveillance and workload monitoring in Cricket. This technology is not available for complimentary use to the general public; therefore this App can assist in capturing injury data at all levels of cricket electronically. The CricketPredict mobile App for Android smartphones was developed using three languages C++, Qt Modeling Language (QML) and JavaScript. CricketPredict is the first complimentary mobile App that can record injuries in cricket through a smartphone. The injury questionnaire is tailored to cricket and the App can also record batting and bowling workloads, which can be risk factors for injury. The App can be used without the need of supplementary computer devices for synchronization, making its usage practical on the cricket field. Electronic injury surveillance systems have been shown improve data collection during competitive sport. Therefore CricketPredict mobile App may assist in better reporting of injuries at junior level and may also act as a monitoring system for coaching staff to adjust training workloads of individual players.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

e-Yoga Prescription Designed for Computer Users using e-Yoga Environment for Posture - A Study on Information Technology (IT) Professionals to Help Them Improve Their Spine Health

Authors:

M. Shivarama Reddy, Suhasini A. Venkatramana, B. R. Ramji and Nishreyas M. V.

Abstract: The paper presents the next generation health protection techniques using postures and exercises of Yoga specially designed for IT professionals suffering with sever Spine related health issues. On a short survey conducted on major health issue concerning the Information Technology - IT professionals here in Bangalore, India. The result shows Posture and Spine related issues made the work delay and employee well-being is disturbed at higher levels dragging the employees into chronic pain and depression producing less creativity. We formulated a general health check up to understand the nature of Yoga needed to help the employees or users to improve their Gait and posture. Using Video Analysis techniques for simple Yoga and motion analysis techniques for advanced yoga, we have designed a prototype where the user can reap benefits of Yoga by creating a Virtual Yoga Environment at the work place or wherever the employee uses the computer for a long time. The environment alerts the user at regular intervals depending on user Yoga Prescription that is generated by the environment at the time of user requirement, inputs and accessibility. The alerts for healthy users and young IT professionals will be blinking their eyes very often, standing up from the work chair, stretch, a standing twist and some basic neck movements again depending on the body size of the user. However performing these simple Yoga exercises on the whole in a day would be approximately 5 to 7 minutes for a6 to 8 hours Computer user that would promote better health.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Calculation of Running Economy with a Biomechanical Model versus Indirect Calorimetry

Authors:

Lennart Gullstrand, Daniele Cardinale and Johnny Nilsson

Abstract: The interest in running economy (RE) analysis, based on metabolic and biomechanical measurements (BM), have increased during the previous decades. In this study a new “body marker-free” method MotionMetrix Inc., Stockholm, Sweden), based on two depth sensitive cameras were used to capture the runners motion during treadmill running. A 3D segment model was generated and after kinematic and kinetic analysis a number of running parameters were derived. Running economy is originally defined as the metabolic cost from measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2) in mL·kg-1·min-1 at submaximal and steady state velocities (1) and is here compared to energy expenditure expressed in J·kg-1·min-1 calculated from the new biomechanical model. Seven well trained middle- and long distance runners, with a VO2 max of 67.8 ± 5.1 mL· kg-1· min-1, volunteered in the study. Four submaximal (12, 14, 16 and 18 km·h-1) speeds were performed on a high precision treadmill and VO2 was measured with a validated metabolic chart (OxyconPro) in the mixing chamber mode simultaneously with the capture of the running motion. The biomechanical model used segments of the body movements which were calculated to represent one whole centre of mass movement. The correlation coefficient calculated between VO2 related to body mass (mL· kg-1· min-1) and BM energy expenditure (J·kg-1·min-1) was 0.854 and significant. When VO2 was recalculated to the same unit of EE by using the de Weir (1949) formula, resulted in the same significant correlation vs. BM EE. Nevertheless, the EE values from the 2 methods differ 20-40 % (Coefficient of Variation 7.8 %). The new "body marker free" method is of great interest as it allows evaluation of RE without manual attaching body markers and the use of expensive respiratory equipment. Thus, the participants are not connected to any measurement device that may restrict the running movements. In addition, interesting data for evaluation of RE, such as stride rate, stride length, foot contact time and vertical displacement (Vdisp), can be obtained. These are possible biomechanical factors influencing RE. Unexpectedly, specifically the centre of mass (CoM) Vdisp data in this investigation showed a low, not significant correlation to VO2 derived RE. COM Vdisp is in the literature regarded as one of the more important sub factors influencing RE. There may be several biomechanical reasons for the EE discrepancy between the 2 methods. It is for example unknown if the model accounts for stored elastic energy in stretch-shortening cycle components, which would add to the BM EE and reduce the difference. However promising, we intend to further validate the actual method against a more sophisticated optoelectronic set up with multi joint reflectors, which may be regarded as a biomechanical gold standard.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

An Instrumented Glove for Swimming Performance Monitoring

Authors:

M. Mangin, A. Valade, A. Costes, A. Bouillod, P. Acco and G. Soto-Romero

Abstract: This paper presents a project of wearable motion capture system for motion analysis in swimming. Two versions of this system have already been designed, one with a wired structure, based on a microcontroller and an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and the other with a distributed architecture, based on a wireless communication and another IMU. This system has been initially designed to target tri-athletes population, but this study only presents the considerations concerning the swimming application.

Area 15 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Direct Measurement of TV Viewing Time and Physical Activity in Children - A Pilot Study

Authors:

Mohammad Ali Alahmadi

Abstract: The main aim of this study was to design an electronic device to objectively monitor Television (TV) viewing time in children. The second aim was to examine the relationship between TV viewing time and physical activate activity (PA). Seven children (mean ± SD, age, 10.7 ± 2.1 years; body mass, 35.7 ± 17 kg; height, 137.4 ± 12.3 cm) participated in this study. TV viewing time was directly measured for two consecutive days by a novel wireless electronic device, using Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology which was connected to a main electronic board that is designed to measure TV viewing time in minutes. PA was also measured, concurrently with TV viewing time measurement, by pedometers (Yamax Digiwalker SW-700) for 3 consecutive days. The preliminary results show that the average TV viewing time of children was 248 ± 188 min/day. Participants also recorded a mean of 10731 ± 3399 steps per day. The average TV viewing time was positively associated with the average steps in children, but not statistically significant (r= 0.74, p= 0.056). It is concluded that the current study produces a novel wireless electronic tool that can monitor TV viewing time in children. It is also concluded that high association between TV viewing time and PA was observed among children, although not statistically significant.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

The Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on the Physical Health and Physical Activity

Authors:

Zivana Gavric, Dragana Grujic-Vujmilovic and Miodrag Marjanovic

Abstract: Chronic diseases affect the quality of life and all components of the health, and they decrease physical activity. The aim of the research was to assess how diabetes mellitus affects the physical health component in relation to sex, age and level of education. For survey research at the Clinical Center of Banja Luka in the period from October 2011 to June 2012, which included 150 patients with diabetes mellitus, we used a questionnaire of the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF). The mean score for physical domain of health were slightly higher in male patients (57.92), but without statistically significant difference (t = 1.256; p >0.05) compared to female respondents. With a statistically significant difference (p <0.01) the mean scores for the physical domain of health were higher among younger respondents and those with higher education and those mean scores declines with age and with lower levels of education. Mean score were highest in unmarried people, followed by married but without statistically significant difference (p>0.05) compared to divorced and widower. In our patients, diabetes mellitus has an impact on the physical health component and restrict certain physical activities, especially in patients who are older and with lower education.

Area 16 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 54
Title:

Two Body Dynamic Model for Speed Skating Driven by the Skaters Leg Extension

Authors:

E. van der Kruk, H. E. J. Veeger, F. C. T. van der Helm and A. L. Schwab

Abstract: In speed skating forces are generated by pushing in a sideward direction against an environment, which moves relative to the skater. There is a distinct difference in the coordination pattern among (elite) speed skaters. Models can help to give insight in this peculiar skating technique and ideally find an optimal motion pattern for each individual speed skater. The objectives of this study are to present a verified three dimensional inverse skater model with minimal complexity, modelling the speed skating motion on the straights. The model is driven by the changing distance between the torso and the skate , which is also the true input of the skater to generate a global motion. Additionally this input, which is indirectly also a measure of the knee extension of the skater, is a variable familiar to the speed skaters and coaches. In this extended abstract we verify this novel model for two strokes (left and right) of one skater through correlation with observed kinematics and forces. Preliminary results presented show that the model, despite the simplicity, was able to simulate the upper body movement accurately, while The forces on the skate were underestimated.

Area 17 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 56
Title:

Reliability of a Screening Tool to Prevent Running Injuries - The RunningSmart Tool

Authors:

Justien Cornelis, Rudi Frankinouille, Filip Stremersch, Stig Vaerewijck and Dirk Vissers

Abstract: The goal of this research was to assess inter- and intra-rater reliability of the RunningSmart screening tool, developed to determine weak-links at baseline in novice, recreational and athlete runners. The tool provides a selection of exercises targeting the identified weak-links. Overall, the tool had a fair to good inter- and intra-rater reliability for the separate clinical tests based on the kappa value. The RunningSmart Tool focusses mainly on recreational runners or people that initiate running. Therefore the tool is designed in a practical and easy to apply way that can be used in a clinical setting. These data indicate that the RunningSmart Screening tool can be confidently applied by trained individuals and used to assess the movement patterns of recreational start-to-runners in order to make decisions related to interventions to decline the injury risk and enhance physical activity.

Area 18 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 57
Title:

The Effect of Team Record on Fan Loyalty in the National Football League

Authors:

Rahul Mani and Vinod Dubey

Abstract: The paper explores the relationship between a team’s performance in the National Football League (NFL) in terms of win and loss records and fan loyalty. It examines to what extent winning matters in order to sustain fan loyalty and what is therefore the incentive for the owners and players to improve a team’s performance. This research uses computer data mining and predictive modelling techniques through JAVA Programming to answer this question. Linear and Quadratic regression analysis are undertaken to see if the results differ for teams with a winning versus a losing record. The contribution of this paper is to establish that fan attendance at home games can be significantly improved by the winning record of the team.

Area 19 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 58
Title:

Athletes Preparation based on a Complex Assessment of Functional State

Authors:

Zinaida Kuznetsova, Aleksander Kuznetsov, Ilsiyar Mutaeva, Gazinur Khalikov and Anna Zakharova

Abstract: Modern training of middle distance runners is characterized by significant increase in loading intensity owing to strengthening of the sports competition. Absence of the athletes’ functional state complex diagnostics complicates the process of training and competitive loadings planning which can lead to failure in adaptation. Middle distance runners functional state assessment is considered in the article. Methods of functional diagnostics: polymyography, HR variability with active orthostatic test, research of physical working capacity (PWC170 test), the express -diagnostics of a functional state by Dushanin’s method and the "Reaction to Moving Object" (RMO test). Research material. Physical working capacity is estimated by means of the PWC170 test, a psychofunctional state by the "RMO" test, an assessment of neuromuscular system by "Rehabilitation and diagnostic RDK-2 complex", an assessment of HR variability was done with active orthostatic test. Results. Complex diagnostics of the runners’ functional state and its further complex assessment by means of the received indices were carried out. The runners’ functional state improvement in the experimental group from the 1st to the 3rd investigation phase is observed. The correlation and factorial analysis of the indices is carried out, the model scale of a functional state assessment is developed.

Area 20 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 59
Title:

Observational Learning - Self-observation Can Be Detrimental to Learning

Authors:

Luc Proteau and Mathieu Andrieux

Abstract: Observation of a model who is performing a motor skill improves naïve observers’ learning of that skill. The aim of the present study was to determine whether self-observation or a combination of expert and self-observation would promote learning better than observation of an expert model and a “generic” novice model. Such a scenario could be the case because self-observation would underline errors that are specific to oneself, whereas the combination of expert and self-observation would have the additional benefit of allowing the learner to determine what to do to improve his or her performance. The task that we chose required that the participants change the relative timing pattern that naturally emerged from the task constraints to a new imposed pattern of relative timing. The 100 participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups: control (C), physical practice (PP), expert and “generic” novice observation (EGO), expert and self-observation (ESO), and self-observation (SO). Learning was evaluated by contrasting the performance of the participants in a pre-test that preceded physical practice or observation and in two retention tests (10-min and 24-hour). A preliminary analysis of the individual data revealed two patterns of results depending on the initial level of performance of the participants in the pre-test. The results indicate that if physical practice is not possible (e.g., because of lack of material or injury) or not advisable (e.g., when there is an element of danger), observation is a powerful learning tool with novices whose performance largely departs from the desired relative timing pattern. Our results also suggest that mixed observation of either oneself or a generic novice model combined with that of an expert model provides better learning than self-observation. Therefore, it appears that a mixed protocol of observation, which allows one to compare and contrast the performance of a novice to that of an expert, should be favored.

Area 21 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 60
Title:

Running Asymmetries during a 5-Km Time Trial and their Changes over Time

Authors:

Rahel Ammann and Thomas Wyss

Abstract: Gait asymmetry during running was proven to be inefficient, uneconomical and a possible risk factor for injury. Research has either been conducted in laboratory settings or only discontinuous data were collected. Hence, the present study evaluated gait asymmetries in elite runners by quantifying the differences between ground contact times (GCT) of the right and left foot and their continuous changes over the course of a 5-km time trial. Data of 25 female and male runners of the Swiss orienteering national team were obtained during a 5-km competition on a 400-m outdoor track. By means of the inertial sensor PARTwear, GCT of every step were assessed, divided into GCT of the left and right foot and averaged over 200-m sections. The results revealed an overall asymmetry of 2.6%, significant (p < 0.01) longer GCT during left than right foot contacts and no changes in asymmetry over the course. This is the first study presenting data on asymmetries in elite athletes during a competitive time trial. In conclusion, low and consistent GCT asymmetries were observed. The examined athletes had a balanced running style and showed no adverse asymmetry with emerging fatigue, which in turn could affect acute performance and increase injury risk.

Area 22 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 65
Title:

Biathlon Shooting Training with SCATT-Simulator - Accuracy Shooting Training of Young Biathletes

Authors:

Elena Plotskaya and Anna Zakharova

Abstract: Teaching marksmanship to beginners in biathlon is extremely difficult. The usage of SCATT shooting simulator system, its software and shooting parameters interpretation are under consideration. Methods. A group of 12 well-trained young biathletes (6 males and 6 females), 14-19 years old, with 3-5 years of training experience in skiing and biathlon were recruited as participants. Every athlete had 0.5 hours of SCATT-shooting 3 times per week. Each athlete’s shooting parameters were measured on the 1st, 10th, 18th and 21st days of our experiment. Results. Novices in shooting decreased the average aiming trajectory length “L” from 434 ± 39 mm to 370 ± 65 mm and improved the graph “Coordination” line and its location within the target zone in biathlon standing shooting. The average shooting “Result” was 4.5±1.08 in novices (enough for biathlon standing shooting). All young biathletes with 3-5 years of shooting experience corrected the shooting aiming errors. The dynamics of “L” is individual and too dependent on the athlete’s fatigue degree.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

The Ground Reaction Force of Standing Triple Long Jump

Authors:

Chung-Yu Chen, Chung-Ming Chan, Chien-Kuo Wu, Ya-Ling Chi and Chi-Wen Chang

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of ground reaction force (GRF) for standing triple long jump with the quantitative analysis of force platform in biomechanics, and also to compare the differences of GRF and impulse among jump movements and standing long jump. Thirteen high school athletes participated for this study. Six Kistler force platforms (9260AA6, 1000 Hz) were used to record the GRF data during the participant performed the movements of standing long jump and standing triple long jump. The results showed that the every jump distance of standing triple long jump was only the 0.92-0.95 times as the maximal standing long jump. The performance of the 3rd jump was less consistent, because of the continuous jump movement of task constraint and the larger impact force (4.49 ± 1.53 BW) during landing.

Area 23 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 70
Title:

Usability and Engineering Aspects of Competing RF Technologies for Communication with Commercial Sports Sensors in Ubiquitous Applications - Experimental Comparison of Power Consumption and Use Cases for ANT+ and Bluetooth Low Energy Sensor Devices

Authors:

Hans Weghorn

Abstract: The commercial market offers quite some time already personal electronic sports tools for control and monitoring of physical workouts. With these units, body measures like movement speed, tread rates, and heart rate are detected by tiny autonomous sensor units and their recordings are transmitted via RF for further processing to a central handheld device. Since a while, also smartphone apps can be used as control instance, if their ubiquitous host device supports one of the particular RF standards for coupling them to the sports sensors. During the last decade, two competing wireless standards have evolved for this sensor air link, which are called ANT+ and Bluetooth Low Energy. The key features of this remote communication technology determine the usability within the various scenarios in personal sports, for instance the question how many sensor devices can be operated closely to each other without interference. In this paper, the specified and advertised properties are analysed on base of the definition of these RF standards, and they are furthermore practically verified with experiments. In particular, measurements of power consumption are shown for the two different RF systems, since life time of sensor battery has relevant impact on convenience of daily use. Furthermore, practical observations of various spurious effects when using the two RF standards are reported here, which seriously bring the reliability and accuracy of such commercial devices into question.

Area 24 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 77
Title:

Can We Predict Blood Lactate Change Non-invasively during Treadmill Exercise? - Study on Wearable Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) System

Authors:

Madoka Yamazaki and Hideo Eda

Abstract: Hemoglobin parameters by Wearable Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) were calculated and compared with the simultaneously recorded blood lactate during treadmill testing. They showed a certain changes associated with the exercise.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

A Case Study of Para Table Tennis Athlete’s Functional Ability

Authors:

Davy See Leng Lim, Yap Wen Bin, Zachary Tan, Holden King Ho Li and Phillis Soek Po Teng

Abstract: Reach is an important performance aspect for para table tennis athletes under the seated classifications of 1 and 2. The aim of this pilot study was to define the effective reach of Class 1 and 2 para table tennis athletes. Three players, 3 from Class 1 and 2 took part in this investigation. During the static assessment, players were asked to perform full reach from a seated position across the table tennis table, with the area outlined as Sweep Area (SA). In the dynamic assessment, players hit a series of balls propped up along the perimeter of the SA. The average SA for Class 1 and 2 were 0.560±0.08m2 and 0.640±0.04m2 respectively. The average Right and Left Tipping Angle (RTA, LTA) on the frontal plane were ±20.7° and ±22.0° for Class 1, and 49.3° and 36.0° for Class 2. Class 1’s average Sweep Time (ST) was 4.92±0.98s, whereas Class 2’s average ST was 3.69±0.58s. There is a difference in RTA between Class 1 and 2 players. For future work more samples are needed to understand the athletes’ Range of Motion (ROM). Findings will serve as important considerations for training design, game strategy and equipment usage.

Area 25 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 80
Title:

Virtual Omnidirectional Video Synthesis with Multiple Cameras for Sports Training

Authors:

Mariko Isogawa, Dan Mikami, Kosuke Takahashi and Akira Kojima

Abstract: This paper proposes a new method to synthesize an omnidirectional video at a viewpoint inside a sports ground, with the goal of sports training. If athletes could virtually experience real games from a player's viewpoint, they might possibly be able to exhibit higher performance in an actual game. A head mounted display, which makes it possible to watch intuitive and interactive omnidirectional video from a 360-degree player's view, together with head direction tracking, leads to further enhanced effectiveness of training. However, it is difficult to put an omnidirectional camera on the field during a real game. Therefore, techniques for synthesizing an omnidirectional video at a player's viewpoint (virtual viewpoint) with the cameras outside the field are required. With this aim in mind, we propose a fast and stable omnidirectional video synthesis technique with image inpainting, which removes unwanted occluders between the virtual viewpoint and the cameras.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

Immersive Previous Experience in VR for Sports Performance Enhancement

Authors:

Dan Mikami, Mariko Isogawa, Kosuke Takahashi, Hideaki Takada and Akira Kojima

Abstract: Scouting opponent players or teams before games on the basis of video has become generalized. In recent years, video-based-scouting opportunities have increased because of the popularization of video sharing services such as YouTube. Watching videos of opponent players or teams has two main advantages. One is that it enables the viewer to analyze tendencies the players or teams show in their play. This information can then be used to help devise strategies to use against the players or teams. The other is that it can provide pre-experience of a sort. In many sports, players having unique forms have significant advantages. In baseball, for example, left-hand sidearm pitchers are comparatively rare and so batters are likely to have problems confronting their deliveries. This paper focuses on video-based scouting as a tool for preparatory training. In the context of ICT (information and communication technology), much research has been done on ways to provide immersive experience (Ochi et al., 2014). Three ways that have been developed merit particular attention. The first is the use of three dimensional displays (or projectors). The second is a cave automatic virtual environment, better known by the acronym CAVE. It provides immersive experience by projecting videos to walls surrounding a user. The third is head mounted displays (HMDs). Recent developments in wide field-of-view HMDs with which head movements are tracked, such as Oculus, have made it relatively easy to provide immersive experience. We believe that this kind of immersive high reality virtual experience enhances the effect of previous experience and can help users to ignificantly improve their own performance in practice. In this paper, we mainly focus on motions a player performs in hitting back an oncoming ball in sports such as baseball, and volleyball. We believe that these motions are particularly applicable in preparatory training.

Area 26 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 84
Title:

Hand Reach Star Excursion Balance Test as a Measure of Joint Mobility

Authors:

Ola Eriksrud, Jan Cabri and Peter Federolf

Abstract: Joint range of motion (ROM) is commonly measured using goniometry, which is well established with accepted reference values from the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) (Greene & Heckman, 1994). The procedures of obtaining these measures are based on unidirectional and uniplanar passive testing of isolated joint motions in supine, prone or seated positions. The relationships of such ROM measures have been found to have a variable relationship to performance (Craib et al., 1996; Menz, Morris, & Lord, 2006). Utilizing tests of the full kinematic chain from an upright standing position that involve the concurrent use of multiple joints, directions and planes of motion might be one solution to the shortcomings of the traditional ROM testing procedures. Full kinematic chain tests have the advantage of greater specificity to most human movements including, for example, athletic performance. The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a widely accepted (Gribble, Hertel, & Plisky, 2012) test of balance and mobility in lower-body joints. While it does not challenge all joint movements at and above the hip (Delahunt et al., 2013), its does offer a platform from which a whole-body mobility test can be created. In the current study we propose a Hand Reach Star Excursion Balance Test (HSEBT), which combines a systematic use of unilateral and bilateral hand reaches, thus also challenging mobility in hip and upper body joints. The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate in which joints significant motions are elicited by the HSEBT in healthy reference group; and (2) compared to joint movements of the foot, knee, hip and trunk triggered by the HSEBT to normative ROM values.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

Reliability and External Validity of Tensiomyography Measurements Following Strength Exercise

Authors:

Rauno Álvaro de Paula Simola, Christian Raeder, Michael Kellmann, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer and Alexander Ferrauti

Abstract: Tensiomyography (TMG) reliability and external validity using maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) following different strength training protocols (STP) were analysed. Twenty healthy male were tested two times over one week and TMG reliability was analysed in the muscles Rectus Femoris (RF), Biceps Femoris (BF), and Gastrocnemius Lateralis (GL), after an individual maximal and submaximal electrical stimulation. Moreover, TMG external validity was assessed through Pearson correlation between changes in TMG muscle mechanical properties in RF and changes in MVIC in squat exercise after five different lower-limb STPs. Maximal electrical stimulation showed the highest ICC scores for TMG muscle properties reliability in all muscles investigated. Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between changes in TMG mechanical properties and changes in MVIC after STPs characterized by high intensity, time under tension and eccentric overload. TMG is a valid and reliable method to assess muscle mechanical properties especially under maximal condition.

Area 27 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Posters
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Development of EMG Indicators for Measuring and Analyzing Pre-motor Activity on Muscles

Authors:

Yosra Saidane, Sofia Ben Jebara, Tarak Driss and Giovanni de Marco

Abstract: In sport, it is well known that mental preparation to a physical effort increases drastically the performance. In this paper, we present a study that aims to evaluate the effect of movement preparation during pre-motor activity on the EMG signal. We considered the existence/no-existence of preparation and preparation duration as indicators. The results of this study performed on different muscles of the forearm show: i) female are sensitive to preparation warning whereas male are not sensitive, ii) contrary to deep muscles, superficial muscles are affected by preparation warning.

Area 28 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Changes in Training Characteristics and Functions for Swimmers during a “DuoBa-KunMing” Altitude Training

Authors:

Yuhong Wen, Yu Ge, Mengxue Zhang and Yi Peng

Abstract: It’s rare to see studies on altitude training (AT) carries out continuously in 2 altitudes. This study followed a 10 weeks swimming training program that included 2 weeks training in DuoBa (2366M) and another 2 weeks in KunMing (1890M). The training characteristics and swimmers’ functional changes were studied in seven swimmers during the training program, just before swimmers participated in the Chinese 12th National Games. Blood samples, heart rates and weights were collected and analyzed for physiological index. Conclusion: (1) The training before plateau was mainly about moderate -high intensity aerobic training. In Duoba, low-moderate and moderate intensity aerobic training was priority. In KunMing, high intensity aerobic and anaerobic training was increased. After the plateau, recovery and conditioning adjustment are the main part. (2) This AT has non-significant effect on athletes’ HR level; the body weight has significant decreased after 3 weeks in plateau and recovered to the common level after a week return to the plain. The athletes’ hemoglobin and blood testosterone increase significantly in plateau. (3) The great results of all seven swimmers in the National Game shows that this pattern of AT is an effective way for improving swimmers’ performance.

Area 29 - Computer Systems in Sports

Posters
Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Construction and Implementation of Games Information System in Aid Program for the 27th SEA Games Myanmar

Authors:

Yang Linyun, Zhang Chao and Cheng Xiudong

Abstract: Multi-sport Games is one of the important social and cultural activities all over the world. It is a necessity to establish the information system for the multi-sport Games, along with the increase in the social concern and participation, and the development of computer and information technology. Games Information System provides complex, accurate and prompt on-site services of all kinds of Games information and results during the competition, and provides more detailed and convenient information services for athletes, coaches, competition officials, OC staff, audiences, media & the public. In this way, the Games Information System ensures the efficient running of the on-site game management and game organization. The 27th SEA Games were held in Myanmar in 2013. As an important part of Aid Program which China gave to Myanmar for supporting the SEA Games, the Games Information System was constructed and implemented by China Sport Information Center. This paper studied and discussed the construction and implementation of Games Information System for the SEA Games. The system went well during the Games, and was highly praised by Myanmar side and different fields related to the Games.

Area 30 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Support Technology in Sport Psychology - Career Transition of Elite Athletes: Role of Mental Training

Authors:

Ikuko Sasaba and Haruo Sakuma

Abstract: Presently, various technologies are used more and more often in the field of sport psychology. This paper introduces two cases of how elite athletes use support technology in their mental training. One of the cases involves the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT), described in detail as qualitative research regarding elite athletes facing career transition. Becoming an Olympian dominates athletes’ entire lives. Elite athletes’ need for career transition support has recently become more recognized; therefore, international sports powerhouses tend to provide their own national support programs for elite athletes during their career transitions; for instance, the Japanese Olympic Committee began a career support program in 2004. In parallel with similar movements around the world, sport psychology consultants are often naturally called upon to address career transitions when working with elite athletes. The results show athletes’ needs for career transition support and how sport psychology consultants can help these athletes as ultimate stage of their mental training. Possible interventions (approaches) are also presented.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

The Effects of EEG Neurofeedback Training on the Behavioral Complaints of Soccer Athletes - A Case Study

Authors:

Erick Conde, Alberto Filgueiras, Adriana Lacerda, Paulo Ribeiro and Tiago Arruda Sanchez

Abstract: Several studies supports that neurofeedback training enhances human skills to control the predominance of cerebral activity by specific frequencies. This training modality was related to efficient applications in clinical use, education, businesses and sports. Behavioral changes were found after the neurofeedback training in various circumstances, eliciting more functionality and accuracy, but no studies were found considering the effects of the neurofeedback at the behavioral and psychological complaints of young soccer athletes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a sensorimotor rhythm training program and its applicability for the sport psychology practice. Five soccer athletes referred to the Sport Psychology department were systematically trained to increase the sensorimotor rhythm amplitude and then, were interdisciplinary monitored by coaches, physical trainers, medical and psychological services. As results, 4 from 5 athletes were considered remitted from the initial dysfunctional complaints. These changes were found such in technical, tactical, physical and psychological aspects, and they varied between athletes and personal demands. As conclusions, the present work pointed evidences that the neurofeedback training program can be an important technology to support the practices of the sport psychology, as to enhance functional behaviors and to promote mental health for developing soccer athletes.

Area 31 - Computer Systems in Sports

Posters
Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Planning Training Loads to Develop Technique and Rhythm in the 400m Hurdles using RBF Network

Authors:

Krzysztof Przednowek, Janusz Iskra, Stanisław Cieszkowski and Karolina H. Przednowek

Abstract: In this paper training loads to develop technique and rhythm in hurdles are presented. The training loads were generated using an artificial neural networks model with radial basis functions. The analysis included 21 hurdlers who were members of the Polish National Team. The calculations for the neural model were made using 48 training programmes. The evaluation of the models was carried out using the cross-validation method. Five independent variables (age, body height, body weight, current result and expected result) and four dependent variables representing the selected training loads were analyzed. The determined model generated training loads with an error of approximately 21%. Experimental results showed the training programme for a hypothetical athlete. The analysis shows that all the examined training loads are of a non-linear nature. The proposed solution can be used as a tool to support planning for selected training loads in 400 m hurdles.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

The Analysis of Basketball Free Throw Trajectory using PSO Algorithm

Authors:

Pawel Lenik, Tomasz Krzeszowski, Krzysztof Przednowek and Justyna Lenik

Abstract: The following paper described the method for automatic measurement of selected parameters of a basketball free throw trajectory. The research material was based on 10 sequences recorded by a monocular camera. For tracking the ball the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was used. Additionally the method of ball detection was developed. The study was conducted on a group of 10 basketball players who participated in the Polish Second Division during the 2014/2015 season. The 10 parameters (four distances, three velocities, and three angle parameters) were taken into account. The experimental results showed that the value of the initial angle was equal to 47:27±4:42 degrees, and the height of ball trajectory was at the level of 3:84±0:34 m. The correlation between body height and parameter of a free throw was also determined. The analysis conducted showed a significant correlation between the height and shape of a free throw trajectory. The suggested method can be used in the training process as a tool to improve performance of the free throw.

Area 32 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 48
Title:

Healthsaving Technologies for Young Cross Country Skiers - Cardiovascular System Testing for Sport Training Program Design

Authors:

Anna Zakharova, Natalia Tarbeeva, Alena Tarbeeva and Tatiana Miasnikova

Abstract: Training process in sport imposes high demands on athletes’ cardiovascular system. Results of incremental treadmill test revealed that young athletes perform intensive physical work with cardio strain, i.e. at high HR. That is why training for cardiac adaptation should be foreground at the initial stages of sport specialization. Hemodynamic monitoring allows assessing cardiovascular system dynamics in training. The analysis of such indicators as HR, SV, EDV and inotropy (heart contractility) in 30 12-14 year-old cross-country skiers made it possible to divide them into 3 groups with different training orientation. Group 1 (low aerobic fitness: SV< 70 ml, EDV<110 ml) underwent aerobic training and general exercises. For group 2 (moderate fitness with high inotropy: RHR< 65 bpm, SV>70 ml, EDV >110, inotropy > 45) general and specific exercises were used on cross-country terrain under HR control (upper limit is 160 bpm). Group 3 (moderate fitness with normal inotropy less than 40%) underwent intermittent training as well. Regular hemodynamic monitoring (once per 3 months) helped individualize training, transferring athletes from one group to another according to the monitoring results obtained, thus avoiding inadequate cardiac adaptation. Incremental tests carried out twice a year proved the effectiveness of the selected health-saving technologies.

Area 33 - Computer Systems in Sports

Posters
Paper Nr: 55
Title:

An Android Application for Real-time Referee Observers

Authors:

Gregorio Bernabé and Javier Cuenca

Abstract: Football matches are consolidated as the events with the greatest number of followers in the world. These matches are managed by a group of referees. An observer evaluates the referees by watching the match in the stadium and making notes about important determinations, including the main right and wrong decisions. We present an Android application for mobile devices to facilitate the task of the observer, allowing the observer to pay attention to the game and partially automating the report on referees.

Area 34 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 62
Title:

Relationship between Initiation of Gaze Stabilisation and Angle of Head and Trunk Movement during a Jump with Full Turn

Authors:

Yusuke Sato, Shuko Torii and Masaharu Sasaki

Abstract: Over time it has become clear that there is a relationship between visual spotting and movement in the air in gymnasts, but that relationship during basic skills that are simple for skilled gymnasts, such as a jump with full turn, is still unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between the initiation of gaze stabilisation and the magnitude of body rotation angle during landing. The participants were 10 skilled male gymnasts. Their eye movements during jumps were measured using electrooculography and their body movements were recorded using two high-speed digital cameras. The initiation of gaze stabilisation immediately before landing was determined by combining eye and head movement data. We found various relationships between initiation of gaze stabilisation and jump movement in gymnasts, such as a positive correlation between the gaze stabilisation and the head-on-trunk angle at the initiation of gaze stabilisation and angles of trunk rotation at the landing. The results suggest that gymnasts who can look at locations quicker before landing might have an advantage in completing rotation, as well as gaining enough time to use visual information. For achieving early gaze stabilisation, it may be necessary to rotate the head ahead of the trunk.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

Imagery Ability and Imagery Use in Triathletes’ Strategic Mental Rehearsal Practices

Authors:

Akihiro Fukunaga and Fumio Mizuochi

Abstract: Studies in triathlon research are often seen in the field of physiology, such as that of Ishihara et al. (1996) on exercise intensity and estimating energy expenditure in Olympic-distance triathlons. However, there appears to be no psychological research available focusing on mental rehearsal and imagery ability in triathletes. A triathlon is a competition demanding a high level of endurance, being a combination of three disciplines; swimming, cycling, running, and the transitions in-between the race components. In addition, because athletes need to contend with external factors such as the weather, flow of the tide, wind direction, and other triathletes, mental rehearsal may be a factor that could affect competitive performance. Therefore, strategic practice of an appropriate type of mental rehearsal may be an essential part of an athlete’s pre-race psychological conditioning. This study explored the relationship between triathletes’ imagery ability and what types of imagery they used in their strategic mental rehearsal practices.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

Strategies for Improving Japanese Elite Male Cross-country Skiers' Double Poling Skills to an Internationally Competitive Level

Authors:

Junichi Igawa, Shintaro Kanno, Tsukasa Suzuki and Fumio Mizuochi

Abstract: The strategies of raising the cycle rate of the pole ground contact phase and of overcoming the trade-off between cycle rate and cycle length have been noted as important for improving a cross-country skier's double poling skills. The present study investigates the problem of improving the double poling skills of Japanese elite male cross-country skiers to an internationally competitive level by analyzing the trade-off or absence thereof and the timing skills seen in their gliding motion.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

The Relationship between Sporting Experiences and Resilience of College Student Athletes in Japanese

Authors:

Nobuhiro Takahashi and Fumio Mizuochi

Abstract: Resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress(APA, 2008). In studies of resilience, Tomikawa et al. (1999) found no gender-related differences. And studies are available on the relationship of resilience to sports experience. In a study of resilience and sports experience from elementary school through university in a sample of college students, Ogawa et al. (2011) found higher resilience in students who had continuously practiced sports. In this study we looked at whether the acquisition of resilience differed by sporting event type and years of sports carrier.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

Emotional Changes Caused by the Change in the Tempo of Fujime Daiko

Authors:

Naoki Hirano and Fumio Mizuochi

Abstract: Wadaiko – Japanese drum – are at times referred to as a “sport of sound.” This is because they require a mobility not seen with other instruments. Furthermore, because Japanese drum is an instrument that does not have a musical scale, the percentage in which rhythms and tempos determine the artistry in its performance is high (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). The performer experiences positive emotional expression during performance, akin to a pleasant feeling. Furthermore, the resonance of the sound during a Japanese drum performance and the vibration transmitted to the body when beating the drum become positive stimuli, aiding in releasing stress and sustaining concentrative ability (Saito, 2001). With Japanese drum, sounds are created with a hitting motion, and movement and sound stimuli from this process influence the performers’ emotions. However, studies on Japanese drum heretofore have mainly looked at the biomechanics of the hitting movement or music therapy and there have not been many studies that focused on the emotions of the performers in association with changes in rhythm and the tempo. The objective of this study was to examine the changes that appear in the emotional state, autonomic nerve activity, and stress reaction during and after performance of fujime daiko by changing rhythm and tempo. Such changes were examined using psychological examination, heart rate variability, and saliva analysis. The change in emotional state was the main factor examined in this study.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

Speeding up Skills for Improving Japan's Elite Female Cross-country Skiers' Double Poling Skills to an Internationally Competitive Level

Authors:

Shintaro Kanno, Junichi Igawa, Tsukasa Suzuki and Fumio Mizuochi

Abstract: In this study, we have attempted to create a motion model regarding the timing skills that female skiers need to acquire, based on image analysis data of double poling movements by elite Japanese male and female skiers. As a result, the features of the motion model which could make female athlete A acquire the main skills of the gliding motion of a male athlete as below. (1) Because the muscle power exerted by flexion and extension of the elbow joint and hip joint is efficient, the present joint angular velocity is maintained. (2) The timing is synchronized to let the elbow joint extend in phase P with the time point for maximum angular velocity of flexion of the shoulder joint. (3) The timing is synchronized to allow bending of the elbow joint and hip joint in phase P. In other words, flexion timing is hastened so that maximum angular velocity of hip joint flexion appears with pole grounding approximately at the same time. (4) The timing is hastened to let the hip joint extend in phase G. About after 0.2s at the approximately the time point for maximum angular velocity of elbow joint extension.

Area 35 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Posters
Paper Nr: 82
Title:

Pedobarographic Features of Gait Measured by FDM1.5 PMD

Authors:

Igor Gruic, Karlo Cebovic, Josipa Radas, Filip Bolcevic and Vladimir Medved

Abstract: Backgrounds: Main objective was to evaluate methods for assessment of pedobarographic features of gait using FDM1.5 pressure measuring device (PMD) - within complete gait analysis, with regard to device, protocol&data analysis, specifically to basic morphology and certain distinctive characteristics. Methods: Protocol was standardized for descriptive&inferential statistical methods (63 quantitative variables). Participants characteristics (n=22; 13 male&9 female): age 14-35 y.o., average 172,56cm body height, average 73.11kg body mass (19.47 BMI), with minimum of 5 years of regular sport&recreational activities. Results: Protocol output was consistent for repeated measurement of an individual. Tested differences between genders, before&after ‘partialization’ of results (excluded influence of longitudinal dimensionality), in both cases reveal significance in: Stride width (t_GSW=4.15), Step time_L (t_TSTL=2.88), Step time_R (t_TSTR=3.59), bilateral asymmetry in Step time (t_TST_D=3.32), Cadence (t_TC=-3.44) on p<0.01 level, and Ant/Post position (t_BAP=2.33), bilateral asymmetry in Time to change heel to forefoot(t_LTP_D=2.26), Time maximum force Midfoot_D % of stance time (t_TMAXM=2.33), and bilateral asymmetry in Contact time Heel (t_CH_D=2.33), on p<0.05 level. Differences in barefoot/footwear gait were specially expressed in variable MAXPH (t= -8.84, p<0.05). Conclusions: Statistical tools, such as partializations of the results by specific characteristic which tend to increase heterogeneity, may standardize&improve the power of the protocol and method.