icSPORTS 2014 Abstracts


Short Papers
Paper Nr: 123
Title:

Reliability and External Validity of Tensiomyography Measurements following Strength Exercise

Authors:

Rauno Álvaro de Paula Simola, Nico Harms, Christian Raeder, Michael Kellmann, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer and Alexander Ferrauti

Abstract: Tensiomyography (TMG) reliability and external validity using maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) following different strength training protocols (STP) were analysed. Twenty healthy male were tested two times over one week and TMG reliability was analysed in the muscles Rectus Femoris (RF), Biceps Femoris (BF), and Gastrocnemius Lateralis (GL), after an individual maximal or either a submaximal electrical stimulation. Moreover, TMG external validity was assessed through Pearson correlation between changes in TMG muscle properties in RF and changes in MVIC in squat exercise after five different lower-limb STP. Maximal electrical stimulation showed the highest ICC scores for TMG muscle contractile properties reliability in all muscles investigated. Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between changes in Dm, muscle contraction velocities, and MVIC after different STP characterized by high intensity, time under tension and eccentric overload. TMG is a valid and reliable method to assess contractile properties within maximal and submaximal electrical stimulus.

Posters
Paper Nr: 124
Title:

Changes of Some Cardiac Functions in Elderly Female after Yangshi Taijiquan Training

Authors:

Shiying Li

Abstract: The investigation of aged women's cardiac structure and function after their one month Yangshi Taijiquan exercise indicated: The taijiquan exercise can extend thickness of left ventricular post-wall of the Yangshi, increase systolid distance, the reduce heart rate and blood pressure under rest, the increase stroke volume and eject fraction. The results suggested that it may improve cardiac circulation and function for gerontic women to do Yangshi Taijiquan exercise.

Area 1 - Computer Systems in Sports

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Skill Scoring System for Ski’s Parallel Turns

Authors:

Shinichi Yamagiwa, Hiroyuki Ohshima and Kazuki Shirakawa

Abstract: Dynamic posture of sports activity is one of the most important aspects to evaluate the player’s skill. Such sports that need evaluation from the objective observation like figure skating and skiing have difficulty in evaluation of skill. The conventional training method for such sports was the feedback of subjective comments from the experts regarding the performance. To overcome this problem, this paper focuses on developing a new training system to give a clear guide for body balance control to the athlete. The system gives scores and messages for raising up the performance skills. It causes improvement of the dynamic posture. This paper introduces a scoring system focusing on the ski’s parallel turn. The system automatically scores skill for body balance control regarding three aspects: the tempo at turns of body balance changes between the right and the left, the distribution of body balance, and the angle between the snow slope and the body of the skier. The system has been implemented in an Android smartphone and evaluated the effects of the scoring functions from the three aspects applying to a middle level skier.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Markerless Motion Tracking in Evaluation of Hurdle Clearance Parameters

Authors:

Krzysztof Przednowek, Tomasz Krzeszowski, Janusz Iskra and Krzysztof Wiktorowicz

Abstract: In this study, implementation of markerless method of human body motion tracking as a tool of measurement of hurdle clearance kinematic parameters was presented. The analysis involved 5 hurdle runners at various training levels. Recording of video sequences was carried out under simulated starting conditions of a 110 m hurdle race. Kinematic parameters were determined based on the analysis of images recorded with a 100Hz monocular camera. The suggested method does not involve using any special clothes, markers or estimation support techniques. In the study, the basic numerical characteristics of twenty estimated parameters were presented. The accuracy of determined hurdle clearance parameters was verified by comparison of estimated poses with the ground truth pose. As the quality criterion, the MAE (Mean Absolute Error) was adopted. In the distance parameters, the least error was obtained for the distance between the center of mass (CM) and the hurdle at the first hurdle clearance phase MAE=22.0 mm. For the angular parameters, the least error was obtained for the leg angle at the first hurdle clearance phase MAE=3.1. The level of computed errors showed that the presented method can be used for estimation of hurdle clearance kinematic parameters.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Predictive Modeling in 400-Metres Hurdles Races

Authors:

Krzysztof Przednowek, Janusz Iskra and Karolina H. Przednowek

Abstract: The paper presents the use of linear and nonlinear multivariable models as tools to predict the results of 400-metres hurdles races in two different time frames. The constructed models predict the results obtained by a competitor with suggested training loads for a selected training phase or for an annual training cycle. All the models were constructed using the training data of 21 athletes from the Polish National Team. The athletes were characterized by a high level of performance (score for 400 metre hurdles: 51.26±1.24 s). The linear methods of analysis include: classical model of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and regularized methods such as ridge regression, LASSO regression. The nonlinear methods include: artificial neural networks as multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) network. In order to compare and choose the best model leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) is used. The outcome of the studies shows that Lasso shrinkage regression is the best linear model for predicting the results in both analysed time frames. The prediction error for a training period was at the level of 0.69 s, whereas for the annual training cycle was at the level of 0.39 s. Application of artificial neural network methods failed to correct the prediction error. The best neural network predicted the result with an error of 0.72 s for training periods and 0.74 for annual training cycle. Additionally, for both training frames the optimal set of predictors was calculated.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

The Helmet Fit Index - A Method for the Computational Analysis of Fit between Human Head Shapes and Bicycle Helmets

Authors:

Thierry Perret-Ellena, Aleksandar Subic, Toh Yen Pang and Helmy Mustafa

Abstract: While a bicycle helmet protects the wearer’s head in the event of a crash, not every user benefits to the same extent when wearing the headgear. A proper fit with the cyclist’s head is found to be one of the most important attributes to improve protection during impact. A correct fit is defined as a small and uniform distance between the helmet liner and the wearer’s head shape, with a broad coverage of the head area. The scientific community has recognised the need for improved fitting, but in-depth methods to analyse and compare the fit performance of distinct helmets models are still absent from the literature. We present a method based on 3D anthropometry, reverse engineering techniques and computational analysis to redress this shortcoming. As a result of this study, we introduce the Helmet Fit Index (HFI) as a tool for fit analysis between a helmet model and a human head. It is envisaged that the HFI can provide detailed understanding of helmet efficiency regarding fit and should be used during helmet development phases and testing.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Investigation of Sensor Parameters for Kinematic Assessment of Steady State Running Using Foot Mounted IMUs

Authors:

G. P. Bailey and R. K. Harle

Abstract: The continuous sensing of kinematics provides an opportunity to monitor changes in sporting technique or to aid in injury rehabilitation. Inertial sensors are now small enough to integrate into footwear, providing a potential platform for continuous monitoring that does not require additional components to be worn by the athlete and can be used to assess foot kinematics during running. To facilitate widespread adoption, sensor systems must be as cheap as possible. To achieve this it is required that such systems be engineered with sampling rates that are not unnecessarily high and with sensor components that meet the requirements of the task, including required accuracy. We investigate multiple sensor parameters (sampling rate, acceleration range) and their effect on the accuracy of kinematic assessment using foot worn inertial sensors. We find that Extended Kalman Filter based trajectory recovery seems to be little affected by sampling rates until below 250Hz. We investigate impact accelerations using an inertial measurement unit attached to the foot and find that, at 250Hz, the acceleration signal peaks at up to 70g around heel strike.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Utilizing Betting Odds for Rating Basketball Teams Across Different Competitions

Authors:

Erik Štrumbelj

Abstract: In this paper we investigate rating sports teams within the same competition and across different competitions. In particular, we investigate the problem of only small number of games played between teams from different competitions, which results in slow convergence of ratings. We deal with this issue by fitting a latent strength model on probabilities from betting odds instead of fitting on observed outcomes. We base our approach on the ELO rating, which we extend to account for home court advantage. Instead of the usual incremental updating, we implement batch fitting, which facilitates propagation of information backwards in time. Evaluation on European club basketball confirms that the proposed approach is a substantial improvement both in terms of higher predictive accuracy and fewer games needed to converge. We include the first systematic comparison of European basketball club competitions. The proposed approach easily generalizes to other sports.

Area 2 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 37
Title:

Testing the Reliability and Validity of the XOS Motion Capture System at Measuring Counter Movement Vertical Jump

Authors:

Suzanne M. Konz and David Cottrill

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to conduct simultaneous measurement of counter movement vertical jump height using the XOS motion capture system and the Vertec system. Ten participants (body height: 170.17 cm ± 13.4, body weight: 79.76 kg ± 17.72) from the Marshall University student body comprised the testing group. Participants were instructed on proper counter movement vertical jump technique. Five practice jumps at 50% effort were conducted. Participants donned a compression suit with reflective markers. The paired t-tests indicated that a difference existed in counter movement vertical jump height measured between the Vertec and the XOS vertical jump was (p < 0.001), SEM of 1.4 with a .823 correlation and the Vertec and the XOS center of gravity was also (p < 0.001), SEM of 1.42 with a correlation of .788. A marked difference exists between the XOS SportMotion capture system’s methods of measuring counter movement vertical jump height when compared to the Vertec measurement.

Area 3 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 38
Title:

ERGO1 - Physical Evaluation and Training for Wheelchair Users

Authors:

Sérgio Augusto Albino Vieira, Cleudmar Amaral de Araújo and Silvio Soares dos Santos

Abstract: According to the literature, there's a lack of methods, procedures and equipments for proper physical assessment. Physical tests applied to persons with disabilities are questionable due to their lack of adaptation to the motor gesture executed in these equipments, which are not the same executed in real wheelchair propulsion. Within this, was designed and built at the Habilitation/Rehabilitation Center in Paralympic Sports/UFU the second version of a wheelchair ergometer prototype that allows physical evaluation, being faithful to the specificity of movements. The equipment has several electronic systems controlled by computer such as electromagnetic resistance system, load cell, torquemeter, dedicated circuits and acquisition system. Preliminary results indicate that the evolution became more practical for the evaluator and comfortable for the user. The addition of flywheels and new calibration method proved its efficiency by improving the signal acquired. New evaluation procedures for physical capacity look promising.

Area 4 - Computer Systems in Sports

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 69
Title:

Development of Concentric-only Exercise Machine with Estimation of Whole Body Dynamics

Authors:

Toyoyuki Honjo, Naruhiro Shiozawa, Seiichi Yokoi and Tadao Isaka

Abstract: Recently, the effects of concentric and eccentric training have been evaluated to determine how to make exercise more effective. Some researchers have reported that concentric exercise increases the concentric strength. In this case, concentric exercise may enhance the concentric force performance with or without lower muscle damage and pain. Therefore, we developed a concentric training machine for lower extremities that we call iSAAC. This machine has an electromagnetic brake to generate a safe resistance load for exercise. The magnitude of the resistance power is less than or equal to the human-applied power. We calculated whole body dynamics such as the joint torque and work of the lower extremities based on the inverse dynamics of the whole body without constraints. We verified the effectiveness of the system through squat-like knee extension exercise and inverse dynamics analysis. The proposed machine provided safe training for concentric knee extension and information on the whole body dynamics during exercise.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

An Improved Simulator of AC45 Foiling Catamarans for Crew Training

Authors:

Filippo Rocchini and Paolo Conti

Abstract: To-day America's Cup catamarans have many innovative features such as hydrodynamic foils and rigid wings instead of soft sails. They are designed not only to float but also to heave and "fly" over the sea surface. These new features require new skills that the crew must acquire. The work presented in the paper deals with this problem and describes a foiling catamaran simulator designed for training purpose. The simulator is designed primarily to interact with the in-training team and to feedback the crewmen with realistic physical reactions in an immersive scenario; secondly the simulator gives the opportunity to compare different race strategies and to select the most promising one. The main features of the simulator are illustrated, some graphical evaluations are displayed and results are discussed.

Area 5 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 72
Title:

Muscle Fiber Function during Rapid Movement based Solely on Kinesthesia

Authors:

K. Ogiso, K. Hirose, M. Takenaka, D. Nagaoka and M. Tokui

Abstract: This study was designed to examine function of the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) fibers during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in knee extension which was exerted based solely on the kinesthesia acquired from repeating the MVC movements. Fifteen men performed 10 consecutive isokinetic knee extensions comprising 7 passive contractions and 3 MVCs, which was repeated for 7 sets. In the first 3 sets, subjects were instructed to perform MVCs immediately a light cue appeared when the leg reached 60 deg knee joint angle in the 3rd, 6th, and 9th extensions; in the next 4 sets, subjects tried to maintain the timing of MVC repetitions without the light cue. VL electromyographic activity was monitored. The point where a fascicle arose from the deep aponeurosis and the pennation angle were measured on VL ultrasonic images. Subjects classified their MVC performance (force and timing) into 5 grades after each set. Based solely on kinesthesia (without the light cue), the VL fibers contracted tightly to a point where the fascicle arises from the deep aponeurosis, and it appeared to compensate for a delay in reaction time to start MVC. However, the subject’s self-evaluation remained unchanged despite the changes in muscle behavior during MVC. In the 4th set only, when the light cue was not used for the first time, did their self-evaluation tend to decrease and VL pre-activity was significantly increased. These results suggest that kinesthesia does not always correspond to actual muscle activity.

Area 6 - Computer Systems in Sports

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 73
Title:

BLINDTRACK: Guiding System for Visually Impaired - Locating System for Running on a Track

Authors:

Ferdinand Kemeth, Sven Hafenecker, Ágnes Jakab, Máté Varga, Tamás Csielka and Sylvie Couronné

Abstract: Visually impaired people need to renounce several social activities what the sighted people can enjoy. In this paper we refer to the project BLINDTRACK which has the major goal to develop a guidance system. A real-time locating system (RTLS) based on radio signals guides the runners with the highest level of safety by estimating the angle of arrival (AoA) and round-trip time (RTT). First results show the position accuracy of the proposed locating system with real-world data. BLINDTRACK provides an enormous freedom for the visually impaired runners in compare to the other solutions: Sighted and blind runners will have the opportunity to perform sport together without another person’s assistance.

Area 7 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 83
Title:

Seeing or Doing? - Pitch Recognition of Batters versus Pitchers: A Preliminary Report

Authors:

Yin-Hua Chen, Pei-Hong Lee, Yu-Wen Lu and Nai-Shing Yen

Abstract: In this study we tackled the question: between the experience of seeing or doing the movement, which one is more important in understanding the observed movement? We thus asked batters and pitchers, in high and intermediate skill levels, to identify the type of pitch that was edited in difference lengths. In general, we found that advanced players showed significant higher accuracy and lower uncertain rate than the intermediate players, particularly in viewing short pitch sequences. These results reflected the requirement of fast sports such as baseball, in which players have to make a correct decision quickly rather than staying uncertain. Moreover, advanced batters showed the tendency of being more accurate than advanced pitchers, though the difference did not reach statistical significance possibly due to small sample size. In consistency with the previous studies, all players showed higher accuracy in identifying the strike pitches when they could see longer sequence of the pitch motion and the baseball trajectory (Paull & Glencross, 1997). In sum, our results supported the notion that when understanding an observed movement, the perceptuo-motor experience reacting to it is more important than the actual motor experience of the observed movement.

Area 8 - Computer Systems in Sports

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 122
Title:

CFD Prediction of the Effect of Appendages and Leeway on the Force Trend of an Olympic Class Laser Dinghy Hull

Authors:

Rickard Lindstrand, Jeremy Peter and Christian Finnsgård

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the minima in hydrodynamic resistance can be predicted to occur at the same angles of heel and trim in the case of bare hull towing tank tests, bare hull simulations and appendage and leeway simulations. If so, the appendages and the leeway can be rejected from future investigations, which would prove a beneficial advancement, as they impose further complexity to simulations. The results of verification and validation (V&V) included in this paper demonstrate that the numerical method predicted too low resistance. Though the study identifies and systematically investigates possible sources of error, the major source of error was not found. These various possible sources of errors were identified for further research, and as future references for similar cases. Moreover, the simulation results for the variations of heel and trim also require further study. Before a full set of results is available, one cannot make conclusions regarding the angles of heel and trim that lead to minimal resistance. This paper discusses the results and potential avenues of future research, and is a result of an initiative at Chalmers University of Technology focusing on sports and technology.

Area 9 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 5
Title:

Individual Performance Optimization of Elite Cyclists

Authors:

Luca Oggiano, Lars Sætran and Lars Morten Bardal

Abstract: The present work focuses on individual posture optimization with the aim to individually reduce the drag and increase the power output on six elite cylists. In order to be able to quantify the changes in drag, power output and VO2max, wind tunnel tests combined with power output and oxygen intake measurements were carried out on each of the athletes tested. Drag measurements were performed in the large scale wind tunnel at NTNU at a constant wind speed of 14.2m/s using a AMTI high frequency force plate. Simultaneously with the drag measurements, the volume of oxygen intake and the power output generated by the athletes during the test in different positions were acquired respectively with a Metamax II portable analyzer from Cortex Biophysic and a Tacx Bushido cycling rig. The main results show that lowering the handlebar while raising the seat in order to obtain a smaller frontal area and a straighter back, lowers the aerodynamic drag but will possibly affect the volume of oxygen intake. The handlebar repositioning leaded to similar results and it might then be questionable whether it is worth reducing the air resistance if the athlete does not sit as comfortably. In most cases a lower handlebar positioning and a narrower set up of the handlebar resulted in a considerable drag reduction without compromising the volume of oxygen intake. Being the present work a preliminary test, no statistical results are presented but as an overall conclusion, it can be pointed out the need to couple drag force measurements with oxygen intake and power production measurements in order to have a clearer picture of the effectiveness of the wind tunnel testing.

Area 10 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Kinematic Analysis in Official Soccer Matches: Preliminary Results - GPS Analysis in Soccer Matches

Authors:

Gabriele Mascherini, Andrea Cattozzo, Giorgio Galanti and Stefano Fiorini

Abstract: Soccer match analysis was initially establish by coach to evaluate tactical aspects, after this approach was used for physical effort. Previously this assessment has been done by video interpretation of the matches. The aim of this study was to analyze the official matches in adults athletes for the first time with a wearable device as GPS. Five official games of sixth division of Italian Football League were assessed with GPS system. Parameters represented the volume of physical activity as Total Distance covered and Relative Distance derived directly from the instrument, while the values of intensity as speed, acceleration and deceleration have been indexed respect to the maximum individual of each athletes. Was also made a tactical analysis respect the roles of players. Values of volume shows lower values than previous studies, while the values of intensity confirm the data present in the literature. Tactical analysis shows predominantly low speed for defenders, medium for midfielders and high speed for forward. Acceleration not differ significantly between the roles. Decelerations are predominantly for midfielders. These are the preliminary results of a larger study involved for the first time soccer official matches assessed with a wearable system. In addition a new approach has been used in order to individualized threshold for speed, acceleration and deceleration.

Area 11 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Application of Bioelectrical Vector Analysis in Professional Soccer Players - BIVA in Sport

Authors:

Gabriele Mascherini, Andrea Cattozzo, Cristian Petri, Lorenzo Francini and Giorgio Galanti

Abstract: Soccer is a sport team with a discontinuous nature of physical effort and the duration of the regular season is 10 months length. Hydration status, water consumption are aspects of human performance debate in recent years and it’s well demonstrated as a reduction of total body water impairs endurance ability. Bio impedance is a useful methods to assess total body water, in addition recent studies reports a new approach in the evaluation of hydration status independently from body weight. The aim of the study was to determine changes of the bioelectrical impedance throughout a soccer season. Bioelectrical parameters of a Italian professional football team were recorded eight time during a regular season. The detection were carried out following the standard tetra polar method. Twenty-five male soccer players were submitted at BIA measurement, but only eleven athletes took part in all eight sessions detection. The data recorded by conventional BIA processing didn’t show any statistical differences in weight, hydration and cellular masses. Bio Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) shows a high significance in Anova test for the values of Xc (p<0.01) and PA (p<0.001), no difference in Rz among eight measurements. Body composition and hydration status in footballers are generally well and the variations in conventional BIA are minimal. Therefore BIVA in this population may give specific information for physiological changes for training dues. A regular bio impedance assessment in athletes is desirable to follow adaptations to training loads.

Area 12 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Dynamic Analysis for Golf Swing using of Mode Synthetics Method for Suggesting an Optimal Club

Authors:

Kenta Matsumoto, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Akihito Ito, Masahiko Ueda and Kosuke Okazaki

Abstract: Advance of measurement system permits the measurement of high accuracy data. This study proposes analysis of shaft movement using this system. Firstly, we made a shaft model using finite element method and a club head model as concentrated mass. Secondly, we reduced amount of calculation by applying mode synthetics method. Input data for simulation is inertia force and torque calculated from swing data that is measured by motion capturing system and is treated data manually. Finally, we simulated shaft movement using these data, we cloud repeat shaft movement of face direction and toe direction.

Area 13 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Shared Understanding and Coordination in Team Sports - Contribution of Viewpoints Changes and Shared Information Displays for Team Situation Awareness Training

Authors:

Gilles Kermarrec, Yohann Cardin and Cyril Bossard

Abstract: The paper aims at examining the interest of viewpoints changes and shared information displays for promoting shared understanding and decision-making coordination in team sports. The role of technological device such as virtual reality and video-cued training are examined. The paper starts with a description of major features in shared understanding elicited in sport psychology, and then focuses on review and choices concerning the use of virtual reality (VR). Finally, an exploratory study in soccer is presented, supported the idea that, using two properties of VR (viewpoint changing, and displaying player’s judgments), an innovative 2-D video-cued training should enhance shared understanding between four defensive players. First results suggest that such technological device could enhance sharing processes and modify sharedness (i.e. shared knowledge structure).

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

Brown Adipose Tissue Participate in Lactate Utilization during Muscular Work

Authors:

VD. Son’kin, EB. Akimov, RS. Andreev, AV. Yakushkin and AV. Kozlov

Abstract: In an experiment involving five healthy volunteers studied the dynamics of the skin temperature of the back and neck, combined with the dynamics of blood glucose and lactate during treadmill ramp test and 10 minutes of the recovery period. Skin temperature decreases in all cases at the beginning of the ramp test, but after reaching the anaerobic threshold temperature increases rapidly and reaches a maximum at the time of the refusal of work or shortly thereafter. Since the moment of reaching the anaerobic threshold and to the end of the observation period strong positive correlation between the maximum temperature of the selected area of the body surface and lactate content in the peripheral blood is observed. Blood glucose levels do not correlate with the skin temperature. The data obtained can be used as some evidence in favor of the hypothesis of the participation of brown adipose tissue in lactate utilization.

Area 14 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 50
Title:

A Comparison of the Movement Patterns of Specific Rugby Union Movements on Both Natural Turf and Artificial Turf

Authors:

S. O'Keeffe, K. Fullam, M. O. Feeley, B. Caulfield, E. Delahunt, G. Coughlan and M. D. Gilchrist

Abstract: A limitation of sports kinematic studies is that they cannot fully represent in-situ play conditions for fast dynamic sports. This paper describes the use of new inertial measurement technology to analyse player motions in the field under game-like conditions in order to quantify the impact of different playing surfaces on biomechanical performance. The wireless sensor system used in this study (Shimmer 3, Shimmer Research, Ireland) is a lightweight (50x25x12.5mm3), wearable, low-power consumption inertial measurement unit that contains a tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer. Sensor data can be used to derive a range of spatiotemporal and kinematic variables to quantify performance during gait and other functional activities. In our research we are using these sensors as a means to characterise biomechanical performance during a range of rugby related activities, such as sprinting, side stepping, cutting, and jump landing. The motivation for this study has been to compare biomechanical forces associated with kinematic movements of rugby players on natural turf surfaces and on synthetic surfaces, ultimately in order to establish potential injury consequences for players following the proposed introduction of synthetic sports surfaces. In this paper we present preliminary data acquired from players performing a 10m sprint test and describe our methods of data extraction and subsequent data processing.

Area 15 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Monitoring of the Functional State of Athletes by Pupillometry

Authors:

N. N. Varchenko, K. A. Gankin and I. A. Matveev

Abstract: Method of binocular pupillometry is presented with an application to evaluation of the functional state of athletes. The method is based on synchronous registration of both pupil reactions to a light flash stimulus. Pupil reaction reflects the state of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance of autonomic nervous system and serves as an objective measurement of the body condition. The advantages of the method are: non-invasiveness, quick operation, wide spectrum of measured characteristics, and the fact that pupil reaction to light flash stimulus is an unconditioned reflex and is not controlled by the cortex and consciousness. Results of the experiments performed with various groups of athletes are presented. A possibility of using the pupillometry for evaluating athletes’ state is shown. Comparison with traditional methods of functional state evaluation is done.

Area 16 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 56
Title:

Online Monitoring of Swimmer Training Using a 3D Accelerometer - Identifying Swimming and Swimming Style

Authors:

Marko Topalovic, Simon Eyers, Vasileios Exadaktylos, Jan Olbrecht, Daniel Berckmans and Jean-Marie Aerts

Abstract: In the process of optimizing training efficiency and improving results of the athletes, technology has increasing share. Wearable sensors, especially those measuring motion are lately acquiring more and more interest. In this paper, we aimed to develop online monitoring tool of swimming training, more in particular algorithm for detection of swimming and turning events using 3D accelerometer. Additionally, algorithm should be able to discriminate between performed swimming styles. This study included data of 10 swimmers who swam on predefined protocol for 1200m. Each swimmer was equipped with wireless waterproof 3D accelerometer attached over right wrist. Algorithm showed high accuracy of 100% for detection of swimming and turning activity. Additionally, detection of swimming styles such as crawl, breaststroke and backstroke resulted of 100% true positive rate. However, true positive rate decreased to 95% for detection of butterfly event. To conclude, we demonstrate that swimming activity together with style recognition can be registered using wireless waterproof 3D accelerometer. Furthermore, we show that such detection can be automatized and performed in an online mode. Taken together, this development leads to a useful online monitoring tool of swimming training.

Area 17 - Sports Medicine and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 57
Title:

The Effect of Implementation of a Program to Promote Physical Activity in the Relationship between Functionality and Well-being in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Authors:

Luisa Pedro, José Pais-Ribeiro and João Páscoa Pinheiro

Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the implications of the IPPA in the perception of functionality and wellbeing in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods - This is a quasi experimental study non-randomized study with 27 MS patients diagnosed at least 1 year before, and with an EDSS score of under 7. We used the IPPA in 3 groups of eight people in 3 Portuguese hospitals (Lisbon, Coimbra, and Porto). The sessions were held once a week for 90 minutes, over a period of 7 weeks. The instruments used were: We asked the subjects the question "Please classify your functionality?" and used the Personal Wellbeing Scale (PWS) at the beginning (time A) and end (time B) of the IPPA. We used the SPSS version 20. We used the spearman correlation test for the variable analysis. The intervention followed the recommendations of the Helsinki Declaration. Results – The Results the correlations between the functionality perception and well-being, before application of IPPA (r=0.47, p<0.01), and the end of the implementation of IPPA (r=0.63, p<0.01). The results show that the IPPA improves the correlation between functionality and well-being.Conclusions - The IPPA can play an important role in modifying the perception of functionality and personal wellbeing.

Area 18 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 58
Title:

Support for Motor Learning by Visualizing the Similarity of Sports Form - Examining Effective Image Features in Back Hip Circle Videos of Children

Authors:

Ayumi Matsumoto, Dan Mikami, Harumi Kawamura, Akifumi Kijima and Akira Kojima

Abstract: The goal of our study is to propose systems that can support motor learning and coaching for users (or teachers) without requiring any detailed knowledge of sports. We propose a system that can visualize similarities in “ form ” as the term applies to sports (e.g., batting form, hurdling form) and an instruction method that will automatically be suitable for the person using it. As a step toward this goal, in this paper we propose a framework for the similarity visualization that is based on similarities in form and optimal image features for classifying similarities in target forms in sports actions that require different lengths of time to perform. We performed form classification experiments with the aim of determining appropriate image features in order to visualize form similarities. The highest classification precision was obtained with BoVW by applying a sliding window to back hip circle videos.

Area 19 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 61
Title:

Observational Learning - Tell Them What They Are about to Watch and They Will Learn Better

Authors:

Luc Proteau and Mathieu Andrieux

Abstract: Observing a model performing a motor skill improves the learning of that skill by naïve observers. Considering the advances in video capture technology, it is very easy to film both expert and novice athletes and use these films to teach novel motor skills to children and adults. In the present study, we assessed whether learning is optimized when the learner knows beforehand whether he or she would be observing an expert, an intermediate, or a novice model. Advance knowledge of the type of model shown might guide one’s observation and improve learning. However, being uncertain of whether the next model would be a novice or an expert might activate more elaborate cognitive processes, thereby leading to improved learning. The task consisted of hitting four successive targets of equal size in a clockwise motion. The distances to each barrier were 15, 32, 18, and 29 cm. The participants were required to complete each of the four segments of the task in an intermediate time (IT) of exactly 300 ms for a total movement time (TMT) of 1200 ms. The task required the participants to change the relative timing pattern that naturally emerged from the task constraints to a new imposed pattern of relative timing. This is similar to changing one’s tempo when executing a serve in tennis or a drive in golf (Rohbanfard & Proteau, 2011). The results of the present study confirm previous findings indicating that one can learn a new relative timing pattern through observation (Andrieux & Proteau, 2013; Rohbanfard & Proteau, 2011). The results show that the benefits of observation for learning a new motor skill are enhanced when one has access to a variety of models, ranging from novices to experts. These benefits are optimized if the observer knows beforehand the quality of the performance that she or he is about to observe.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

Concentric Power Differences during Take-off between Young Male and Female Team Handball Players

Authors:

Igor Gruic

Abstract: Differentiating gender related manifestations of power through two-legged taking-off kinetic chains was main objective of this research. Basic techniques of exertion of power while jumping in team handball have major impact on individual and group tactics efficiency. Potential within individual player’s performance rise proportionally with greater variability, versatility and control of timing, intensity, function, structure etc. of concentric, eccentric and elastic component of muscular contraction. It is the case for individual sports like athletics (Čoh et al., 2013.), or gymnastics (Medved et al., 1995), therefore those are functionally reflected in specific take-off, throwing/shooting and sprinting techniques in team sports. Hypothesis of this research was that from certain age arising differences in observed characteristics are measurable by the height of jump, but by average concentric power as well. Participants were 41 young team handball player (24 male and 17 female) 16±1 yr., all member of national selection preparing for international tournaments (European Championships) in year 2006.Tensiometric Platform (Kistler factory) and standard Quattro Jump protocol was used to collect data (variables in table 1.) and to produce figures. Concentric, eccentric and elastic component of take–off were assessed trough Squat Jump (HSJ, PSJ), Countermovement Jump (HCMJ, FI, PCMJ, STR, FIBR), Continuous Jumps (HCJ, PCJ, KCJ) (BW and DELTAH included in formulas). Data was processed by statistical package Statistica for Windows 5.0 (StatSoft, Inc.). Basic measures of central tendency and dispersion, Pearson product-moment correlation, and t-test for independent samples were used to assess data, to produce figures, and to test main hypothesis. Descriptive statistics reveal gender based inconsistencies of processed signals. Correlations between rise of center of gravity (in HSJ, HCMJ and HCJ) and average concentric power (PCMJ, PCJ) were statistically significant in range 0.52-0.83. T-test confirmed hypothesis of existing differences in average concentric power between male and female subjects (PSJ: t=3,75, p<0,01; PCMJ: t=4,46, p<0,01; and with lower level of significance PCJ: t=1.77, p<0,08). Indirectly, differences in concentric, eccentric and elastic component of take–off were confirmed with statistical significance in variables HSJ (t=5,76, p<0,01), HCMJ (t=6,29, p<0,01), and HCJS (t=3,50, p<0,01). Although estimated by standard Bosco protocol, observable statistically significant difference in percentage of used fast twitching fibres FIBR (t=3,26, p<0,01) go in line with previous results.

Area 20 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 74
Title:

Influence of Wearing Shoes on the Impact Force during Drop-jump

Authors:

Keiji Koyama, Reo Kurisu, Huka Shibata and Junichiro Yamauchi

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the vertical ground reaction force during drop-jumping in bare and shod conditions. Seven healthy men participated and performed the drop-jump from the box of the 45cm-height in barefoot (BARE) and shod (SHOD) conditions. The force variables at the contact were measured on the force plate. The maximum vertical ground reaction forces (MGRF), contact time (CT) and jump height (JH) were used. MGRF, CT and JH were not significantly different between BARE and SHOD conditions.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

Energy Expenditure during Walking, Jogging and Running in Bare and Shod Conditions

Authors:

Junichiro Yamauchi, Hideaki Koike and Keiji Koyama

Abstract: This study was to compare between barefoot and wearing running shod conditions on energy expenditure during walking, jogging and running. Healthy young individuals performed walking (4km/hr), jogging (8km/hr) and running (12km/hr) on the treadmill in barefoot (BARE) and shod (SHOD) conditions. Respiratory gas analysis was performed using a computerized metabolic measurement cart on a breath-by-breath mode. Exercises with a shod condition were significantly higher energy expenditure than those with a barefoot condition in walking, jogging and running.

Area 21 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 76
Title:

Temporal Parameters of Foot Roll-over during Walking Straight Ahead and Stepping over Obstacles in Postmenopausal Women

Authors:

David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Maria Moreira, João Abrantes and Aurélio Faria

Abstract: Background: There is a lack of studies that evaluate the effect of stepping over obstacles during walking despite its frequent occurrence during daily activities which also induce important modifications in foot behaviour. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare, the temporal characteristics of foot roll-over between the following tasks: (SAT) walking straightforward; and (OT) walking forward stepping over obstacles. Methods: Thirty-one postmenopausal women participated in this study. Plantar pressure parameters were evaluated for the trailing foot by a Footscan platform using the two-step protocol. The height of the obstacle to overcome was 30% of leg length. The initial contact (IC), final contact (FC) and duration of contact time (DC) was obtained for 10 anatomical pressure areas during foot roll-over. Five instants and four phases of foot roll-over were determined. T-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed during statistical analysis. Results: In OT the foot contact duration was longer. The IC (areas: MF, M5-M1, T2-5 and T1) the FC of T1 and the FMC and FFF occurred significantly earlier in OT. The FC (regions: M5-M1) occurred significantly later in OT. The DC (areas: M5-M1, T2-5 and T1) was significantly superior in OT and the duration of the ICP phase was shorter. Conclusion: During OT the trailing foot had longer contact duration, this can be explained by the time required to generate sufficient vertical impulse to overcome the obstacle by the leading foot. Differences were also found between tasks in some foot areas for IC, FC and DC. Such differences could be related to trail limb’s role, which demands a stable support for the leading limb and an increase of vertical

Area 22 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 77
Title:

Machine Learning for Individualized Training Support in Marathon Running

Authors:

Ladislav Havaš, Vladimir Medved and Zoran Skočir

Abstract: Modern technology significantly influences the field of human physical exercise monitoring and control. Assuming a cybernetic-like approach to sports training, we witness a dynamic, synergistic interaction of the man-technology system realizing a training process. In this paper we focus to actual implementation of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for intended improvement of marathon runners’ training. While general principles of sports training are known (Milanović, 2009), ICT offers profoundly novel and original possibilities to influence and actively control training process of a particular individual. First author’s sports experience (Havaš and Vlahek, 2006) is combined with an approach based on telecommunication platform which was gradually built, upgraded and validated over the years (Havaš, at al., 2013) to produce an original, comprehensive and intelligent system suited to individualized use (Havaš, 2014). Here we focus in particular to machine learning features of the approach enabling a flexible, on line physiologically based-monitoring training support system for marathon running. Developed, tested and validated on marathon runners’ data, the system however posesses capabilities for application in sports training in general. The results that were achieved by the users show that it is possible to, in such manner, achieve expected (or better) results in a single training process that lasts several months. With the assistance of realized system, it is possible to achieve the results in one season that are better than previous attempts done by the analyzed users. The probability of achieving inadequate results or an occurrence of sport injury is significantly decreased, while the probability of achieving imagined results in the suitable conditions is increased.

Area 23 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 82
Title:

To Bat or Not to Bat? - Batting Eye of Elite Batters: A Preliminary Report

Authors:

Yin-Hua Chen, Yu-Wen Lu, Pei-Hong Lee and Nai-Shing Yen

Abstract: In this study, we investigated the difference of the batting decision in advanced (n=18) and intermediate baseball batters (n=12) by asking them to make a swing judgement and then to recognize the pitch after they viewed it, given a draw situation of full count (2 strikes and 3 balls), 2 out, and full base at the last inning in a match. We also manipulated the length of the video sequence of the pitch that was presented to the batters to investigate the group difference when batters could see only fraction of pitch motion and the baseball trajectory. Advanced players showed higher batting rate than the intermediate players, particularly when they could see very limited sequence of the strikes pitches. This result reflected their more accurate and quicker response for strikes as compared to intermediate players. Interestingly, a similar tendency was also found for ball pitches. This result could be explained by that advanced players considered those balls as potential strikes subjectively; or that they were intended to make a foul ball, for getting a further pitch count as a positive strategy. Intermediate players instead, in this situation were not sure whether to bat or not, resulting a higher percentage of uncertain decision. We concluded that to make a batting decision correctly and strategically could be important elements in achieving high level batting.

Area 24 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 88
Title:

EMG Pattern of Lower Extremity Muscle for iSAAC a New Resistance Training Machine

Authors:

Seiichi Yokoi, Toyoyuki Honjo, Naruhiro Shiozawa, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Takatoshi Higuchi and Tadao Isaka

Abstract: Many researchers have investigated muscle contraction, often focusing on eccentric contraction. However, some studies have revealed that concentric-only training contributes to increased concentric strength. Moreover, eccentric contraction induces more muscle damage than concentric contraction. Even though there is great demand for eccentric contraction in practice, concentric contraction is essential for an athlete’s performance. To focus on concentric contraction exercise, we developed a concentric-only exercise machine designated Intelligent System of Advanced Actuation for Concentric Training (iSAAC). In this study, we compared the EMG patterns of squat (SQT), seated leg press (LP), and iSAAC. We observed a unique EMG pattern and the generation of explosive power during knee extension with iSAAC. Therefore, iSAAC enables athletes to enhance the concentric strength of their lower extremity muscles.

Area 25 - Computer Systems in Sports

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 89
Title:

A Wearable Inertial Sensor Unit for Jump Diagnosis in Multiple Athletes

Authors:

Marcus Schmidt, Thomas Jaitner, Kevin Nolte, Carl Rheinländer, Sebastian Wille and Norbert Wehn

Abstract: In highly dynamical sports such as track and field jump events, athletes must be able to generate high forces within a very short time and in an appropriate manner. Objective feedback on performance is crucial to ensure a high quality of training as intrinsic information is merely available to the athlete due to the high movement velocities. Miniature solid-state inertial measurement units (IMU) offers new opportunities for in-field diagnosis as they allow to overcome restrictions of optometric systems or force platforms, and therefore reduce drawbacks on athletes’ performance. Combined with wireless data transmission, IMU can be used to provide athletes and coaches with fast and accurate performance measurements to improve athletic development and elite performance. This paper describes the development and validation of an inertial sensor based device for an ubiquitous monitoring for multiple athletes during training sessions. The development included hard- and software, algorithm for jump detection and an evaluation study (ten participants performed Drop Jumps of different heights). Mean differences of 3.4ms for stance duration and a confidence interval ranging from 0.16 to -0.16 for reactive strength index indicate the developed device as a suitable tool for a field based jump diagnosis with multiple athletes.

Area 26 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 91
Title:

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves the Isokinetic Muscle Performance in Young Adult Subjects - Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Muscle Performance

Authors:

Marcelo Magalhães Sales, Caio Victor Sousa, Rafael dos Reis Olher, Renan Renato Cruz dos Santos, Carlos Ernesto and Ivo Vieira de Sousa Neto

Abstract: [Purpose]: to verify the effects of the anodal transcranianal direct curret stimulation (TDCS) on isokinetic muscle performance in young adults subjects. [METHODS]: after approval by the local human research ethics committee (CEP of. 672.808/2014), 12 male participants between 23 and 34 years old (age: 24.8±3.1; body weight: 75.1±7.4; stature: 175.4±6.5; Body mass index: 24.4±2.4) were selected and signed a free and informed consent form in order to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were: a) having aged 18 years, b) do not make use of any ergogenic substance for at least 1 year, c) does not have any musculoskeletal disorder that can impair performance during data collection. After remaining 15-min rest in the sitting position, the subjects were underwent sham or anodal TDCS for 20 min. So, after this procedure, subjects performed isokinetic muscle testing. All sessions were carried out at the same time of day and separated by at least 48 hours. The sessions were applied in random order. Electric current was applied through of a pair of sponges moistened with saline solution (NaCl 150 mmol diluted in Milli-Q water) on the electrodes (35 cm2). The electrodes (anode and cathode) were connected to a continuous electrical stimulator with three power batteries (9 volt) connected in parallel. The maximum output power is 10 mA and controlled by a professional digital multimeter (DT832, Weihua Electronic Co., Ltd, China), with a standard error of ± 1.5%. For anodic stimulation over the left temporal cortex, the anode electrode was placed on the scalp on the T3 area located at 40% of the distance from the left side of the point C2 in accordance with international standards for system eletroencefalograma10-20. The cathode electrode was placed on the supraorbital area contralateral to the anode electrode (Fp2). Then a constant electrical current of 2 mA was applied for 20 min. For the sham condition, the electrodes were placed in the same positions that anodal. However, the stimulator was turned off after 30 seconds of stimulation, as suggested by Gandiga et al. (2006). Before the muscle performance isokinetic evaluation, all subjects performed a warm-up on a cycle ergometer at 50 watts during 5 minutes. Evaluation of isokinetic muscle performance was carried out during the concentric phase of the right knee extension (Biodex). Thus, the biological axis (lateral femoral epicondyle) was aligned to the mechanical axis of the dynamometer in sitting position with the angle of trunk flexion in 80°. In order to minimize the cooperation of other muscle groups besides the knee extensors was adopted maximum mooring rated (Stumbo et al. 2001). The positioning for adjustments was performed as suggested by Stumbo et al. (2001). After performing the procedures mooring, subjects were underwent to isokinetic muscle testing, which consisted of performing 2 sets of 5 repetitions at the angular velocities of 60 and 180°∙sec-1, with a rest interval of 60 sec between sets. [RESULTS]: Table 1 presents the main findings of this study. The results of this study indicate that anodal TDCS seems to positively influence levels of force (PT) and strength endurance (TW) in trained young adults, to the extent that the PT and TW variables had statistically higher values in the anodal TDCS session to both the angular velocities tested (60°∙sec-1 and 180∙sec-1). [CONCLUSION]: In conclusion, anodal TDCS seems to improve isokinetic muscle performance in young adults subjects.

Paper Nr: 92
Title:

Hot Environments Decrease Exercise Capacity While Elevating Multiple Neurotransmitters Independent of Humidity

Authors:

Jiexiu Zhao, Lili Lai, Stephen S. Cheung, Shuqiang Cui, Nan An, Wenping Feng, Santiago Lorenzo and Ye Tian

Abstract: Introduction:The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that different neurotransmitters and hormones are presented at exercise fatigue in hot temperatures with differing relative humidities (RH). Methods: Eight trained male athletes performed a graded maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) test in five different environmental conditions: 21°C/20% RH (Normal); 33°C/20% RH (Hot 20%), 33°C/40% RH (Hot 40%), 33°C/60% RH (Hot 60%), and 33°C/80% RH (Hot 80%). Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise and analyzed for noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (ADR), dopamine (DA), serontonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and prolactin (PRL). Weight, oral temperature and skin temperature were recorded pre- and post-exercise. Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout exercise. Results: Compared to Normal, Hot 20%, Hot 40% and Hot 80% had lower VO2max levels (P < 0.05). Pooling data across all five conditions, NA (P < 0.0001), PRL (P < 0.0001), 5-HT (P = 0.002), 5-HIAA (P = 0.029), and DA (P = 0.016) levels were affected by exercise, with the levels each being significantly associated with performance time. However, ADR did not show any significant effect between pre- and post-exercise (P = 0.187). Discussion: The main findings of this study were two aspects. First, hot-wet condition (Hot 80%) and hot-dry conditions (Hot 20%, Hot 40%) have similar negative effects on VO2max performance. This is in a protocol with a relative short duration – “in real” life – e.g. a prolonged competition the negative effect of high humidity on thermoregulation would be expected to aggravate hyperthermia and hence have a larger effect on VO2max and performance. Second, irrespective of thermal status, NA, DA, PRL, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA are associated with the performance time of the VO2max protocol. Although the finding of neurotransmitters being impacted by exercise fatigue in heat is not a new concept, this is one of the first laboratory studies to systematically investigate the effects of hot temperature and different humidities on multiple neurotransmitters simultaneously.The effects of a hot environment on aerobic performance have been well documented, but the specific influence of relative humidity on performance and on the physiological response to exercise remains largely unexplored. Although exercise capacity at moderate intensity in a warm environment is progressively impaired as the relative humidity increases, the present investigation demonstrated that VO2max was generally lower in hot conditions than in Normal and there were no differences across humidity levels. There was a significant effect of time for NA, PRL, 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and DA concentrations after exercise in the five different conditions. The levels of NA, DA, PRL, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA were strongly associated with exercise time, suggesting that the duration and/or intensity of exercise had an important influence on neurotransmitter levels irrespective of environmental conditions. High correlation of NA, DA and 5-HT with performance time of VO2max provides support for the hypothesis that central fatigue should be determined by the collaboration of the different neurotransmitter systems, with the most important role possibly being for the catecholamines DA, NA, and 5-HT in high temperature. Figure Relationships between performance time versus post-exercise concentrations of Dopamine (A), ADRrenaline (B), Noradrenaline (C), Serotonin (D), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (E) and Prolactin (F) References Gleeson M (1998) Temperature regulation during exercise. Int J Sports Med 19 Suppl 2: S96-99 Meeusen R, Roelands B (2010) Central fatigue and neurotransmitters, can thermoregulation be manipulated? Scand J Med Sci Sports 20 Suppl 3: 19-28 Meeusen R, Roeykens J, Magnus L, Keizer H, De Meirleir K (1997) Endurance performance in humans: the effect of a dopamine precursor or a specific serotonin (5-HT2A/2C) antagonist. Int J Sports Med 18: 571-577 Roelands B, Meeusen R (2010) Alterations in central fatigue by pharmacological manipulations of neurotransmitters in normal and high ambient temperature. Sports Med 40: 229-246

Paper Nr: 94
Title:

Influence of a 4-Month Barefoot Training upon Muscle Activation of Overload Controllers

Authors:

Ana Paula da Silva Azevedo, Raísa Valvassori, Bruno Mezêncio, João G. O. Claudino, Juliana Pennone, Murilo Alves de Souza, Fernanda O. M. dos Anjos, Alberto Carlos Amadio and Julio Cerca Serrão

Abstract: 1 OBJECTIVES Running has been a very important expression of movement. The expansion of your practice has been followed by a seeking for new strategies to improve mechanical load control and performance. Thus, the belief that barefoot running could be an effective strategy to attend these objectives has been reinforcing (Divert et al., 2005, Lieberman et al. 2010, Squadrone and Gallozzi, 2009). In short-term, external load seems to be increased during barefoot locomotion in subjects who are inexperienced in this mechanical condition (Cavanagh et al., 1981, De Wit et al., 2000). Considering that the lower limb muscles, mainly placed in thigh, are involved in the mechanical load control (Novacheck, 1988), they could have their activity increased either. However, there are evidences that the human body could adapt to barefoot situation, altering the control of mechanical load and the muscle activation pattern in running (Divert et al., 2005, Lieberman et al. 2010). Nevertheless, few studies analyzed the long-term effect of barefoot running upon the intensity of muscular activation, and little is known about the consequences of this strategy in subjects who are inexperienced in this mechanical condition. Thus, the investigation of lower limb muscles responsible for the overload control during running, as biceps femoris, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, (Novacheck, 1988) becomes crucial for the understanding of barefoot adaptation’s process in long-term. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of 4 months of barefoot training upon the muscle activation intensity of biceps femoris, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, comparing the electromyiographic signal obtained during barefoot and shod running, before and after intervention. 2 METHODS Twenty runners (13 men e 7 women; 33.2 ± 6.4 years; 72.6±14.2kg; 1.72±0.11m) without experience in barefoot running were recruited for the study. Participants were excluded if they had suffered any structural injury in the last 12 months and/or had any experience in barefoot running or with minimalist shoes. All participants read and signed an informed consent term. The experimental design was approved by the local ethics committee. During the 4 months of intervention, participants ran progressively at the barefoot condition, starting the training with 5% and ending with 20% of their weekly training volume being performed without shoes. The barefoot running training was performed three times per week. The participants kept their normal running training routine, using shoes, while they were involved in this research. Runners were evaluated at two different moments: pre and post intervention. They ran during 10 minutes at 9 km.h-1 on a treadmill, in two conditions: shod and barefoot. The electromyographic signal (EMG) of the long head of biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) of the right leg of each volunteer were monitored. Nine acquisitions (10 seconds each) of EMG for each experimental condition were performed, with sampling frequency of 2600 Hz. The acquisition of EMG signal occurred through the Lynx-EMG System 1000 (Lynx Electronic Technology LTDA.), composed by data acquisition EMG1000-VxRy module, an Analog/Digital (A/D) converter and the Lynx-AqDados program. Bipolar surface electrodes "Double" (Hal Industry and Trade LTDA), AgCl, were placed on muscle bellies and connected to active preamplifiers AX1010 (Lynx Electronic Technology LTDA.). The electrodes placement in each muscle occurred according to the criteria established by SENIAM (Surface Electromyography for the Non-Invasive Assessment of Muscles). The muscle activation was assessed through the calculation of the RMS (Root Mean Square) of the EMG signal from each muscle analyzed, only in the stance phase, during shod and barefoot running. The signals were filtered by a digital Butterworth band pass filter of 4th order (cutoff frequency from 20 to 450Hz) and notch filters of 60Hz, 120Hz and 180Hz. Data was normalized by the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), obtained at the beginning of the test session, prior to the running test. The statistical analysis of data was performed in SigmaStat 3.5 (Systat, Germany) software. Data normality was verified using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, while homoscedasticity was checked by Levene's test. For means comparison, an analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) for repeated measures was performed. The level of significance adopted was p <0.05. 3 RESULTS The Table 1 shows average values and standard deviations for the RMS of the three selected overload controllers muscles (BF, VL e RF) in both shod and barefoot. No significant difference was found for BF and RF. On the other hand, the VL was significant different between experimental conditions. Before intervention, the VL had an activation intensity about 131% higher in barefoot running (p=0.002) when compared to shod. However, after 4 months of barefoot training, the RMS of VL was significant smaller for barefoot running than before the intervention, decreasing its activation in about 65% (p=0,017) after intervention and showing a activation pattern similar to shod running. Table 1: RMS values (%MVIC) during stance phase of running with shoes and barefoot in pre and post-intervention. Pre Post Variables Shod Barefoot Shod Barefoot BF 23,60 ± 7,69 50,90± 10,50 20,4± 10,50 52,60±10,50 VL(*) (#) 17,80 ± 3,32 41,20± 4,45 14,70± 3,32 14,40 ± 3,32 RF 29,60 ± 4,99 39,80 ± 7,06 31,10± 4,99 21,80 ± 4,99 Legend: Long head of biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). (*) significant difference between the conditions (shod and barefoot) in pre moment; (#) significant difference between the moments (pre and post) in barefoot condition. 4 DISCUSSION According to the results, individuals who are not adapted to barefoot locomotion seemed to have a higher intensity of muscle activation of overload controllers muscles compared to shod condition before intervention, mainly for VL. Studies showed an increase of the external forces in barefoot running to not adapted subjects (Cavanagh et al., 1981; De Wit et al., 2000). Therefore, the greater muscle activation without shoes is probably a response to this possible increase in mechanical load, especially VL which is directly involved in impact absorption (Novacheck, 1988). Thus, despite representing an intrinsic protection strategy, the greater muscle activation at pre-moment may influence internal load and energy expenditure in running. However, 4 months of progressive barefoot running training seemed to be efficient to promote some adaptations in muscle activity intensity. Barefoot training significantly reduced the muscle activity of the VL, making it similar to running shod. Thus, it’s possible to conclude that a 4-monthy barefoot running training has potential to decrease the intensity of muscle activation of the lower limbs, mainly the VL, in subjects who are not adapted to locomotion under this mechanical condition. REFERENCES Cavanagh PR, WillIams KR, Clarke TE., 1981. A comparison of ground reaction forces during walking barefoot and in shoes. In: Biomechanics VII, edited by MORECKI AF, K.; KEDZIOR, K.; WITS, A. Baltimore: University Park Press, p. 151-156. De Wit B, De Clercq D, Aerts P. 2000. Biomechanical analysis of the stance phase during barefoot and shod running. J Biomech 33: 269-278. Divert C, Mornieux G, Baur H, Mayer F, Belli A., 2005. Mechanical comparison of barefoot and shod running. International Journal of Sports Medicine 26: 593-598. Lieberman DE, Venkadesan M, Werbel WA, Daoud AI, D'Andrea S, Davis IS, Mang'eni RO, Pitsiladis Y., 2010. Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. Nature 463: 531-535. Novacheck TF, 1988. The biomechanics of running. Gait Posture 1; 7 (1):77-95. Serrão JC, 1999. Aspectos biomecânicos da influência do calçado esportivo na locomoção humana. São Paulo: Escola de Educação Física e Esporte - Universidade de São Paulo. Squadrone R, Gallozzi C., 2009 Biomechanical and physiological comparison of barefoot and two shod conditions in experienced barefoot runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 49: 6-13.

Area 27 - Sports Medicine and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 102
Title:

Injury Prevention Practices by Amateur Football Coaches in Gauteng South Africa

Authors:

Siphesihle Mtshali, Hellen Myezwa, Nonceba Mbambo-Kekana and Kerith Aginsky

Abstract: Football coaches play a vital role in teaching safe playing skills and prevention strategies. However with perceived incongruence between existing scientific evidence, research and implementation in practice and delivery, there is no evidence for translation of research into practice. This study aimed to identify coaching practices on injury prevention in amateur football players. Ten institutions and their coaches registered in the University Sport of South Africa Gauteng Football League during the 2012 season agreed to participate in the study. A structured observation checklist was developed from the ten point action plan of the SportSmart injury prevention programme to observe practices of coaches. The coaches’ education was found to be limited to an introductory level and experience. Keeping attendance registers, type of stretches during warm up, availability of hydration and injury management during training sessions were aspects not practised by the coaches. This paper presents aspects the coaches were focusing on, which may influence injury prevention. Sixty percent of the items in the observation checklist were not taken into account by the majority of coaches. Some of the omissions such as type of stretches have the potential to increase the risk of injury among the players.

Area 28 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 110
Title:

Visual Feedback System for Intuitive Comprehension of Self-movement and Sensor Data for Effective Motor Learning

Authors:

Dan Mikami, Ayumi Matsumoto, Toshitaka Kimura, Shiro Ozawa and Akira Kojima

Abstract: Information feedback systems for motor learning have been widely studied. Means of providing feedback can be divided into two approaches: auditory and visual. Audio information can rovide feedback without preventing training motions a trainee makes when moving (Effenberg et al., 2011). However, due to the intrinsic feature of sound, i.e., that is onedimensional temporal data, the information it can express is quite limited. Visual feedback has also been widely studied (Guadagnoli et al., 2002; Wieringen et al., 1989). Feedback of this type can provide a great deal of information through the use of visual information. For example, Chua et al. have developed a training system in a VR environment (Chua et al., 2003). The system uses a motion capturing technique to capture a trainee’s movements and shows the corresponding trainer’s movements. Choi et al., have proposed a system that estimates motion proficiency on the basis of motion capture data (Choi et al., 2008). However, though visual information may enhance motor learning efficacy, there are two problems that make it difficult for most existing visual feedback systems to be used in practice. One problem is in setting. The aforementioned systems employ motion capture techniques to obtain human movement. The overhead for setting mocap systems and training site restrictions deteriorate the systems’ efficacy. The other problem is in the timing of visual feedbacks. The simplest visual feedback system is training in front of a mirror. In this case, the trainee has to get visual feedback while he or she is moving, which disrupts practice. Another simple visual feedback system is capturing and watching a video. In this case, the temporal gap between capturing and watching gets longer, and this degrades feedback efficacy. In recent years, small sensors have been developed that enable information of various types such as surface electromyography (EMG), cardiac rate, and respiration rate to be captured with only a small amount of interventions required on the part of trainees. These can be used as additional information for motor learning feedback. Here, we should note that a considerable amount of information does not always result in effective motor learning; in fact, too much information may well disturb motor learning efficacy. We aim at providing visual feedback of a trainee’s movements for effective motor learning. This paper describes a new visual feedback method we propose with this aim in mind. It has three main features: (1) automatic temporal synchronization of trainer and trainee motions, (2) intuitive presentation of sensor data, e.g. surface electromyography (EMG) and cardiac rate, based on the position of the equipped sensor, and (3) an absence of restrictions on clothing and on illumination conditions.

Area 29 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 118
Title:

Does the Position of the Hinge in Cross-country Ski Bindings Affect Muscle Activation in Skating?

Authors:

Conor M. Bolger, Øyvind Sandbakk, Gertjan Ettema and Peter Federolf

Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine effect of changed hinge positioning in cross-country ski bindings on efficiency, kinematics and muscle activation patterns. Differences in muscle activation were investigated using a principle component analysis (PCA) due to the higher sensitivity of this method. Participants performed three tests utilizing varying hinge positions: front (toe attachment 0 cm), middle (4 cm behind toe), back (8 cm behind toe). The skiers performed 4 minutes at moderate intensity in G3 skating technique with all hinge positions. All tests were performed at 5% incline and 3.89 m/s. Conclusion: The greatest differences between skating and classical, and between genders were found on flat and uphill terrain, but were not associated with variations in heart rate. In all athletes, the hinge position affected (F (2,87) > 5.71, p < 0.005) the scores ξ3,i of the third eigenvector v3 in which represented 7.0% of the entire variability of the dataset (EV3 = 0.0699). The current pilot-study indicates differences in gross efficiency and kinematics, and revealed significant differences in muscle coordinative patterns with varying hinge positions.

Area 30 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Study of Training Cycles in Kayak Rowers during Yearly Training Cycle

Authors:

Ruta Dadeliene

Abstract: 1 OBJECTIVES The aim of our research was to investigate Lithuanian elite kayak rowers’ (K-2) preparation during yearly training cycle, as well as to evaluate development of aerobic capacity. 2 METHODS The research was carried out in the first year of Olympic four-year cycle (from October till October), preparing for 2013 World Championship, where the two (1,2) athletes became the winners of the 10th place in 1000 m event (K-2). The carried out training load for aerobic development was brought into five zones of intensity: • first zone – working intensity under aerobic threshold, HR - 140±10 b/min, blood lactate concentration – up to 2 mmol/l. • second zone – working intensity HR - 155±5 b/min, blood lactate concentration – 2,1-3 mmol/l. • third zone – working intensity HR - 165±5 b/min, blood lactate concentration – 3,1-5 mmol/l. • fourth zone – working intensity HR - 175±5 b/min, blood lactate concentration – 5,1-8 mmol/l. • fifth zone – working intensity HR – 180-185 b/min, blood lactate concentration – 8,1 mmol/l and higher. Our elaborated training program underwent discussion by athletes, coaches and scientists; it hardly experienced any changes within the process of athlete’ preparation. Boat speed, distance and athletes’ heart rate had been estimated using computer system Garmin Connect Forerunner 910 XT (Figure 1). Figure 1. Data from system Garmin Connect Forerunner 910 XT. Work intensity had been evaluated by examine lactate concentration (La) (mmol/l), which was measured by analyzer Lactate Pro LT-1710 (ver. 1,0), ARKRAY, taking capillary blood from finger. Gas analyzer Oxycon Mobile 781023-052 version 5.2 (Cardinal Health Germany 234 GmbH, Germany) was used for establishment of the athletes’ aerobic capacity indices: pulmonary ventilation (PV) (1/min), heart rate (HR) (beats/min), oxygen uptake (VO2) (1/min, ml/min/kg), oxygen pulse (OP) (ml/beat), working capacity (W), rowing economy (1 W/ml) at the point of the anaerobic threshold and the point of the critical intensity. Aerobic capacity indices were tested three times: at the beginning of one year cycle in October, in the middle of one year cycle in Mart and before competitor period – in July. 3 RESULTS According to the results of the research, preparation of the athletes for 2013 World Championship was compiled of one macro-cycle, and possessed characteristic for it features (Table 1). During this macro-cycle, the athletes’ carried out training load was not great and amounted to 707 hours. Considering the zones of intensity, the greatest training load was carried out in the third zone and made up 31.2 percent. In the fourth zone (mixed aerobic-anaerobic) such work compiled 12 percent, and only 1.2 percent of the training load was carried out in the fifth zone of intensity. Training sessions, which were carried out during the competitive period, were not of increased intensity, the athletes participated in eight competitions (28 starts). During the preparatory period, aerobic capacity indices under investigation used to progress remarkably for the both of the athletes (Table 2). The obtained research data on aerobic capacity have disclosed individual skills of the athletes, as well as the evolution of such skills. Table 1. Characteristics of workload of kayak rowers in the first year of Olympic four-year cycle. Proc. time in five zones of intensity Month 1 2 3 4 5 14 17 49 20 0 1 16 40 38 5 1 2 6 13 48 31 2 3 18 19 41 21 1 4 24 27 22 25 2 5 43 23 19 13 2 6 39 19 23 18 1 7 37 21 25 16 1 8 39 18 27 15 1 9 47 17 25 10 1 10 40 23 28 8 1 11 36 22 29 12 1 12 29.9 21.6 31.2 16.2 1.2 Total Table 2. Changes in kayak rowers’ aerobic capacity indices during the first year of Olympic four-year cycle. Tes- ting Ath- letes Critical intensity limit La HR b/min VO2 ml/min/kg W I 1 168 56.1 280 11.9 2 156 61.2 240 7.2 II 1 178 67.5 320 12.2 2 135 64.7 280 12.3 III 1 174 66.7 340 12.1 2 147 73.4 320 12.9 4 DISCUSSION Training load which is being carried out in preparing athletes is divided into different zones of intensity basing on various indices. Scientists (Bompa, Haff, 2009) explain such division into zones for the sport with prevailing aerobic capacity due to biochemical processes in muscles. According Vescovi et al (2011) in the beginning of the season, in the first block (months of October and November), training on the boat is introduced three times a week, dedicated to the development or recovery of aerobic capacity with long outings (60-90 minutes), performed at a heart rate between 50 and 60% of the maximum. With the pre-competition phase, which begins in April, the work out on the boat increases and reaches up to six times a week. The total amount of work out is decreased with a further intensification of the introduced exercises, which are usually of a 4 minute duration at the first half of the week and a 2 minute duration in the second half. The goal is to achieve the increase of the aerobic potency. Our investigation showed decreased amount of workload hours in competitive period in the first and the second zones of intensity, and it was increased in the third zone of intensity. According Issurin (2008) the work in this zone improves the function of cardio respiratory systems without great acidity effect on the body. Rowing 1000 m distance causes reaching critical intensity limit and VO2max (Bishop et al., 2002). Analysis of the intensity and volume of our investigated athletes’ training sessions in competitive period shows that very little workload used to be carried out in the fifth zone of intensity while preparing for first competition of the season (World Cup event). Although flat water kayaking performance (mainly 500-m and 1000-m races) is highly supported by aerobic metabolism, it does require a large anaerobic contribution what reduces the absolute importance of the aerobic energetic pathway (Galrcia-Pallares et al., 2010). The training prescription for elite athletes should emphasize aerobic high-intensity training for the 1,000 m and anaerobic short-term training for the 500-m race (Zouhal, 2012). The obtained research data on aerobic capacity have disclosed individual skills of the athletes, as well as the evolution of such skills. The results provide preconditions for more individualized preparation of the athletes, and prove the fact that training load should not be decreased remarkably in a short transitory period, as the purpose of such load is to maintain aerobic capacity. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was supported by funding from Lithuanian Olympic Comity. REFERENCES Bishop, D., Bonetti, D., Dawson, B., 2002. The influence of pacing strategy on VO2 and supramaximal kayak performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 34(6): 1041-7. Bompa, T., Haff, G.G., 2009. Periodization. Theory and Methodology for training. Human Kinetics. 5th edition. Garcia-Palleres, J., Garcia-Fernandez, M., Sancher-Medina, L., Izquierdo, M., 2010. Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models. European Journal Applying Physiology. 110. 99-107. Issurin V., 2008. Block Periodization: Breakthrough in Sport Training. Yessis M. ed. Michigan: Ultimate Athlete Concepts. Vescovi, M. M.D., Bronzini, D., Bruttini, F.M.D., Mortara, A., Nakou, I.M.D., 2011. Building kayak excellence: from the adolescent to the elite athlete. International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings. 5 (2). Article 8. Zouhal, H., Le Douairon, L.S., Abderrahaman, A.B., Minter, G., Herbez, R., Castagna, C., 2012. Energy System Contribution to Olympic Distances in Flat Water Kayaking (500 and 1,000 m) in Highly Trained Subjects Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 26 (3). 825-831.

Area 31 - Sports Medicine and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Analyzes of Influencing Factors to the Sensorimotor Training - Technical Support Systems in the Physiotherapy

Authors:

Angelina Thiers, Annett l’Orteye, Katja Orlowski, Kerstin Schrader and Thomas Schrader

Abstract: The popularity of the sensorimotor training is still growing. Nonetheless, the training is not yet fully investigated. Information given by the manufacturers, in the literature and the experience of physiotherapists will form the basis of physiotherapeutic interventions. For an integration of evidence based decision making a change in the approach of the therapy planning is needed. This can be achieved by the use of technical support systems. Therefore, the behavior of 32 test persons was investigated. Within two different setups several investigation scopes were analyzed. One scope was the influence of the laterality to the muscular activity during the training on the exerciser. Furthermore, the effects of the different equipment with regard to the information of the literature and the manufacturers were analyzed. Additionally, a detailed investigation of the muscular activity during the realization of tasks given by the physiotherapist was made. Also, a survey regarding the muscular strain during the training as well as the acceptance of the sensors was fulfilled. Finally, factors which have an influence on the progress of the training were identified and analyzed. The benefit and the necessity of technical support systems in the sensorimotor training was shown.

Area 32 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Hemodynamics Monitoring in Sport - Using Hemodynamic Monitor for Sport Training Planning

Authors:

Anna Shishkina, Natalia Tarbeeva, Oksana Alimpieva, Anastasia Berdnikova, Alena Tarbeeva and Tatiana Miasnikova

Abstract: The study stresses the meaning of the physiological measures that are obtained with the functional diagnostics devices and how these values can be used in coaching sportsmen. Methods: Hemodynamic monitor was used for monitoring hemodynamics and heart function of athletes (n=305) with different fitness levels. Active orthoclinostatic tests and antiorthostatic tests with passive body position changing were carried out with hemodynamics measurements recorded. Results: The most informative indicators and indices of heart function for high performance sport and their values at rest were detected. Along with common hemodynamics indicators (HR, SV, CO, EDV, blood pressure, etc.) the possibility of using correlation rhythmogram in coaching was studied. The correlation rhythmogram “cloud” dependence on athletes’ fitness level was revealed in transient during active orthoclinostatic test.

Area 33 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Posters
Paper Nr: 55
Title:

Gait Variability and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women

Authors:

Ronaldo Gabriel, Helena Moreira, Patrícia Soares, Catarina Abrantes, Florbela Aragão and Aurélio Faria

Abstract: The study of gait variability offers a complementary way of quantifying locomotion and its changes with aging (Hausdorff, 2005) and may contribute to improving the quality of life of women after menopause. The aim of this study was to describe gait variability at usual walking speed in postmenopausal women and to evaluate the influence of this variability in the quality of life.

Area 34 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 59
Title:

Evidence of the Possibility to Contract the Lower Trapezius, Relaxing the Upper Trapezius, and Implications on Posture through the Use of an Innovative Mechanical Device for Physical Training

Authors:

L. V. Messa, F. Barberis, C. Paradiso, S. Paddeu, S. Mardessich, U. Arrigucci and M. Bonifazi

Abstract: Often, in the execution of movements involving the shoulder and the back, the predominant activity is carried out by the Upper Trapezius (UT) muscle, and in many cases this may be a risk factor for the integrity of the cervical-dorsal structures. Shoulder and neck pain could be caused by repeated and sustained work of posture muscle including Upper Trapezius (Buckle et al, 2002). Since, from previous literature, the physical exercises proposed for making the Lower Trapezius (LT) muscle to train, make the UT to work more than LT (Bandy, 2001), there was the need to create an apparatus that would involve synergistically the cervical-dorsal muscles, emphasizing in particular the activity of the LT and going to relaxing the UT, to reduce consequences of faulty posture. With the device “Angel’s Wings”, thanks to a simple distribution of vectors of forces, it is possible to isolate the LT activity from the UT. The device “Angel’s Wings”, designed and build by Eng. Luca Valerio Messa, is patented, and acts mainly on the axial muscles of the cervical-dorsal rachis, so it can correct posture of this tract. We used Surface Electromyography (Richard, 2003), Echography (Hashimoto, 1999) and Magnetic Resonance (Dziubai, 2010) to assess the activity carried out by Trapezius and the resulting benefits in a group of volunteers. The “Angel’s Wings” is already used in some physical therapy centres and gyms, and it is also used by international class swimmers of the Italian Swimming Federation. These findings are important because it was believed that the UT would have to contract higher than the LT in every physical performance or exercise. Since the use of this device is simple, the “Angel’s Wings” appears to be a useful method to reduce the problems resulting from an excessive activation of the UT and to improve the postural control.

Area 35 - Sports Medicine and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 62
Title:

Impact of 24 Systemic Cryotherapy Treatments on the Rheological and Morphological Properties of Blood in Healthy Men

Authors:

M. Kepinska, Z. Szygula, A. Teleglow and Z. Dabrowski

Abstract: Introduction Cryotherapy and cryostimulation have recently become popular in the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal system overloads in sports disciplines and sports medicine, as well as in biological regeneration of healthy persons and in increasing the immunity [Szyguła et al 2014]. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of a series of cryotherapy treatments on the rheological and morphological properties of blood in healthy men. Material and methods The study involved 10 healthy men, students of the University School of Physical Education in Krakow, aged 22.1 ± 2.16. Their average body height was 179.2 ± 6.4 cm, weight 79.6 ± 8.8 kg and BMI 23.4 ± 2.6 kg/m2. The control group consisted of the same persons who had taken part in the project. 24 cryotherapy treatments (3 times a week, every second day) were performed in a special cryogenic chamber at the temperature of about -120°C for 3 minutes in the Małopolskie Centrum Krioterapii in Krakow, Poland. To analyse the morphological properties of blood, the blood was sampled immediately before the first treatment and 24 hours after the last treatment. In the blood one determined the rheological properties (red blood cell deformability) and blood morphology, including the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, as well as the mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, the platelet count and the red cell volume distribution width, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides and total protein. The results were analysed using the Student t-test in the Statistica 10 program (StatSoft, Poland), a statistically significant difference p <0.05. Results After 24 hours following the last systemic cryotherapy treatment, one recorded a statistically significant decrease in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, no changes in the erythrocyte count and an increase in the mean corpuscular volume. One also observed an increase in the mean platelet volume and in the platelet large cell ratio, with no change in the platelet count. One recorded no statistically significant changes in the rheological properties and other morphological indicators of blood All results were within the physiological norms. Conclusions 1. An increase in the mean corpuscular volume may result from an increased number of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood, by erythropoiesis stimulation. 2. Systemic cryotherapy results in small changes in the morphological properties of blood, which stay within the the normal range. The project was financed from the funds of the National Science Centre on the basis of a decision no. DEC-2012/05/N/NZ7/01107.

Area 36 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 70
Title:

How Does Functional Soccer Training on Uneven Ground Affect Dynamic Stability of Lower Limbs in Young Soccer Players

Authors:

Marcin Plenzler, Natalia Mrozińska, Anna Mierzwińska, Olga Korbolewska, Daria Mejnartowicz and Marcin Popieluch

Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the level of lower limbs’ stability under dynamic conditions in soccer players before and after the preparatory period. 13 players from AGAPE Soccer Academy in Białołęka (year 2002), participated in this study. The dynamic stabilography was recorded on Biodex Balance System device. The programme included elements such as: functional soccer training and stabilization training on an unstable ground, core stability training, dynamic stability exercises, and lower limbs coordination and strength training. The study showed a significant statistical improvement of stability parameters expressed by the overall stability index (OSI) and A/P stability index for the supporting limb after the preparatory period, during which a stability and proprioception training was completed. The players’ tests results are, also, statistically lower than the control group’s data. The exercised functional training significantly improved stability results of the supporting limb among the young players.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

Effects of Electrical Stimulation of the Calf Muscles on Jumping Performance

Authors:

Nagaoka Daichi, Ogiso Kazuyuki, Takenaka Mutsumi and Tokui Masato

Abstract: In this study, to investigate the effects of tendinous tissue on jumping performance, we induced lengthening and shortening of the Achilles tendon by forcibly contracting the calf muscles by electrical stimulation. Fifteen healthy men participated in this study. Subjects performed 10 consecutive two-legged jumps at maximum effort (100% jump) and at 50% of the maximal jump height (50% jump). Jump height, ground contact, and flight time were measured. Both normal and electrically stimulated jumps were performed. An electrical stimulus was applied over the calf muscle during the jump at 20 Hz (ES20) or 60 Hz (ES60). Electrical stimulation intensity was set to 20% of the maximum ankle plantar-flexion torque. Jumping movements were filmed. The subjects were questioned about their jump performance and about the extent and location of muscle soreness each day for 6 days after the experiment. Jump height was significantly lower in the 100% jump with ES60 than in the 100% normal jump. Electrical stimulation had no effect on stability of the jump. The results of the self-evaluations were as follows: jump performance was rated significantly lower for 60ES than for 20ES in both the 100% and 50% jumps; force required was rated as high at 20 Hz and almost the same at 60 Hz compared with the normal jump; whereas ease of control was rated almost the same at 20 Hz but lower at 60 Hz compared with the normal jump. Significant differences were observed only in hip flexion in the 50% jump and in ankle plantar-flexion in both the 100% and 50% jumps between the normal and ES60 jumps. After the experiment, all subjects reported severe muscle soreness at the myotendinous junction of the gastrocnemius muscle. However, it gradually decreased day by day.

Area 37 - Signal Processing and Motor Behavior

Posters
Paper Nr: 79
Title:

Effects of Different Ground Conditions on Walking Performance

Authors:

Takenaka Mutsumi, Nagaoka Daichi, Ogiso Kazuyuki and Tokui Masato

Abstract: This study was designed to examine the effects of different ground conditions on muscle activity and movement during walking. Eight healthy males volunteered. Subjects were instructed to walk a 50-m straight line at a comfortable walking pace and at maximal walking pace on the following surfaces: hard level ground, almost level sand, inclined surface, and declined surface. The inclined and declined walks were performed consecutively by turning at the end of a 50-m route for a total of 500 m under each condition. Walking movement was filmed in the sagittal plane. Oxygen uptake and heart rate were measured during walking. Electromyographic activity was also recorded. Walking on sand showed the slowest speed and shortest stride length. Inclined and declined walking was characterized by longer stride lengths. Declined walking had the fastest walking pace. Stride frequency was consistent in all ground conditions. When walking on sand, minimum knee and hip joint angles in the contact phase were smallest, whereas heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy consumption were all significantly larger than in other walking conditions. Walking on sand increased aEMG in the calf muscles in the 2nd half of the ground contact phase, reduced it in the tibialis anterior in the 1st half of the ground contact phase, and increased it in the tibialis anterior in the 1st half of swing phase. Differences in ground conditions may influence not only energy expenditure, but also motor control.

Area 38 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 80
Title:

Effect of Etahnolic Extract from Sasa borealis on Endurance Exercise Capacity in Mice - Performance Enhancing Effect of Sasa Borealis

Authors:

Yanghee You, Kyungmi Kim, Yongjae Kim, Jeongmin Lee and Woojin Jun

Abstract: In present study, the endurance exercise capacity of ethanolic extract from Sasa borealis (SBE) was investigated in the mouse model. Also, its exercise-induced serum parameters and lipid peroxidative stress modulating properties were examined. The exhaustive swimming time was significantly prolonged in SBE250 and SBE500. The blood lactate levels of SBE250- and SBE500-mice were significantly lower than that of the control mice, while a significant increase in the NEFA level was exhabited. The levels of glycogen in SBE250- and SBE500-mice were noticeably higher than that of the control group after exhaustive swimming. Also, the mice that received SBE250 and SBE500 showed the significant decreases in MDA level in comparison with the control group. Based upon these results, SBE might play a crucial role in the better physical performance and metabolic capacity.

Area 39 - Sports Medicine and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 87
Title:

Perception of Cold Water Immersion among Elite Athlete’s

Authors:

Noorah Alshoweir, Peter Goodwin, Jamie McFee and Gill Yeowell

Abstract: Background Delayed onset muscle soreness is a common symptom after over-load training. It typically begins 12-24 hours post exercise and lasts up to 72 hours, resulting in muscle pain and reduced function. Cold-water immersion (CWI) has emerged as an effective method of recovery, reducing pain and enhancing function. However, limited literature exists regarding the psychology of its perceived effectiveness. Therefore, athletes’ pain, perceptions of performance and expectations post-CWI were investigated. Methods Eight male rugby players participated in a 2 weeks cross-over trial comprising of 15 minutes of CWI (12-13ºC) vs passive recovery after 20 minute step-up exercises. Three questionnaires were selfcompleted, two investigating the experience of CWI and perceived performance, immediately post CWI and the third investigating expectations, 48 hours later. A focus group was held 48-hour post-CWI. Results were analyzed using a mixed methods approach. Results All players found this CWI protocol acceptable. For most in this cohort, there was a perception that CWI would enhance performance and expect it to reduce pain more than passive recovery. The focus group confirmed the questionnaire findings. Conclusion Player perceptions of CWI might have a significant psychological impact on recovery outcomes.

Area 40 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 90
Title:

Traditional Jiu-Jitsu Training Improves Maximum Strength of Upper Limbs in Beginners

Authors:

Caio Victor de Sousa, Marcelo Magalhães Sales, José Luiz de Queiroz and Herbert Gustavo Simões

Abstract: [PURPOSE] To verify the effects of 4 weeks of jiu-jitsu training in upper limbs strength of beginners. [METHODS] Thirty-eight (n=38) individuals without muscular or orthopedic limitations and without any experience on resistance training or JJ were randomly and equally divided in two groups, Experimental (EG) and Control Group (CG). All individuals performed the 1 Maximum Repetition test (1RM) on the Seated Chest Press (E1) and Seated Row (E2) to verify their upper limbs strength on the baseline and post intervention. The 1RM test was executed following the protocol previously described and suggested (Brow et al. 2001). The CG was oriented to not perform any kind of training or exercise during the period of intervention (4 weeks). Mean while, the EG was submitted to 90 minutes of JJ training, 3 times a week, during 4 weeks. Each training session was standardized in 4 different moments: warm up (25’), technique exercises (30’), combats (25’) and cool down (20’). During the intervention, the EG couldn’t carry out any other physical exercise or training. [RESULTS] Results suggest that only 4 weeks of traditional JJ training alone is effective on the gain of strength in the upper limbs in individuals beginners. The EG showed an significant (p<0.05) increase on the absolute load in the 1RM tests on both exercises, seated chest press and seated row. The load improvement was 12.1% in E1 and 8.8% in E2. [CONCLUSION] We suggest that JJ can be an alternative to resistance training to improve strength on untrained individuals in short term, what can be interesting, since resistance training oftentimes is inflexible and may be a more monotonous practice, especially for beginners.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

A Study on the Intensity of Water Noodle Aerobic Exercise for Adults

Authors:

Yuhong Wen, Lijun Long and Yimin Zhang

Abstract: Water aerobics are considered to be a fine way to improve people’s fitness level without risk of injury. Noodle is one of the commonly used equipments in water aerobics. In order to reveal the load intensity of different noodle works, 14 different movements are designed based on the noodle’s feature of buoyancy and length, as well as water characteristics and human being’s anatomy. 8 adults subjects aged from 18 to 40 are recruited to do water exercise 90 minutes for 3 times a week through 8 weeks period. 2 tests are executed in the 6th and 8th week. Subjects maximum heart rates are tested by porlar rs 400 when they do each movement for 5 minutes continuously with 3 minutes interval between the movements so that HR recovered almostly. The results showed that HR for the 14 movements range between 108±11.40 to 138±15.40 beat/min, which indicates all the exercises are under aerobic intensity and are beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. The highest HR happened when subjects jumping in large range and pressing down or pushing forward noodles with arms, with mean HR located above130 beat/min. When the subjects press noodles while striding or running, mean HR are between 120 to 130 beat/min. When subjects press noodles with standing or floating position, HR range from 110 to 120 beat/min. 4 of the movements are done when legs floating and crouching or rotating in the water, which are difficult to master because of the imbalance in water. Meanwhile, these works are executed with minimum colliding and lowest risk of injury. It is concluded that intensity increases when leg jumping vigorously with arm pressing noodles. Intensity of exercises in floating position is relatively low but good for injury prevention and rehabilitation. All the pressing and pushing movements are executed by pectoralis major and bending muscles of arm, where latissimus dorsi and extension muscle are not recruited thoroughly, which indicates that further attention should be paid in designing exercises.

Area 41 - Sports Medicine and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 97
Title:

The Rehabilitation Effect of Water Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors:

Yuhong Wen, Xurui Liu and Yiming Zhang

Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the rehabilitation effect of the water exercise for chronic low back pain. 10 subjects aged from 20 to 60 are recruited to do water exercise 60 minutes for 3 times a week through 8 weeks period. 2 tests are executed in the 1st and 8th week. VAS、ODI are filled out by participants. Motion test are tested by protractor. It is found that by 8 weeks of water exercise training, waist pain can be relieved dramatically. Water fitness movement such as squat jump, suspending crouching can effectively extend the muscle and eliminate muscle tension. Waist dysfunction can be relieved effectively. Exercise such as kicking forward, kicking laterally can improve the balance and coordination ability. Waist joint mobility and muscle strength can be increased. Exercises such as hip abduction, hip extension and step walk can enlarge the range of lumbar joints activity. On the other hand the resistance of water can enhance the waist and back muscle strength furtherly, ease back muscle spasm, correct muscle imbalances, so as to increase lumbar motion rehabilitation purposes.

Area 42 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 103
Title:

Correlation between Temperature and Fatigue of Thigh in the Resistance Training

Authors:

Marcos Daniel Motta Drummond, Gustavo Ferreira Pedrosa, Aler Ribeiro Almeida, Roberto De Santis, Bruno Pena Couto and Leszek Antoni Szmuchrowski

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between the temperature of the thigh and fatigue in the resistance training. The sample consisted in 18 untrained male subjects (22.12 ± 4.1 years , 1.73 ± 0.05 m, 67.25 ± 5.5 kg, skinfold from the right thigh: 12.5 ± 2.1 mm). The volunteers underwent a single test session in which they performed 5 sets of the exercise Horizontal Leg Press using the weight determined in a 10RM test. The volunteers were instructed to perform as many repetitions to concentric failure (maximum repetitions) in each set. Prior to initiate the exercise, the temperature of the right thigh was measured in all volunteers at the midpoint between the anterior superior iliac spine and the superior border of the patella, in the longitudinal axis. This measurement was repeated immediately after the last set. To obtain the temperature of the right thigh was used an infrared camera brand FLIR® model E6 (FLIR Systems, Boston, USA). The mean maximal repetitions performed in the first and last set and the average temperatures of the thigh before and after exercise were compared by paired t test. The percentage change in the maximum number of repetitions performed between the first and last set was correlated (Pearson correlations) with the percentage change in the temperature of the thigh before and after exercise. Results showed a significant reduction between the maximum repetitions performed during the first and last set and between the temperatures of the thigh before and after exercise. The correlation between the mean percentage change of maximum repetitions performed during the first and last set and the percentage change in the temperature of the thigh before and after exercise was positive (r=0.12) but was not significant (p=0.631). From the results of this study it can be concluded that a reducing in the performance from a resistance training session for thigh muscle, is not accompanied by an increase in temperature of the thigh. Therefore, the measurement of the temperature of the thigh using IRC may not be an effective way of load control during a session of resistance training.

Paper Nr: 105
Title:

Improving Effect of Canavalia Gladiata on Exercise Capability - Performance Enhancing Effect of Canavalia Gladiata

Authors:

Beomjeong Kim, Yanghee You, Jeongjin Park, Kyungmi Kim, Jeongmin Lee and Woojin Jun

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of extracts from Canavalia gladiata on endurance exercise capacity in the mouse model, and to investigate its underlying mechanism. The mice were orally administered with distilled water (CON), hot-water extract (CGW) or 80% ethanol extract (CGE), respectively. The swimming time to exhaustion was significantly prolonged in the CGE group. Lactate level was significantly lower than in the CGE group. At the same time, the amount of glycogen in the CGE group was significantly higher than the CON group. These results suggest that the administration of CGE could improve endurance exercise capacity by enhancing fat oxidation with reductions of the consumption of stored glycogen and production of lactate.

Paper Nr: 106
Title:

Real-Time Sonification of Motor Coordination to Support Motor Skill Learning in Sports

Authors:

Toshitaka Kimura, Takemi Mochida, Tetsuya Ijiri and Makio Kashino

Abstract: It is essential that we recognize our own posture and movements if we are to acquire and improve goal-directed actions such as sports. However, it is not easy to adequately realize the temporal structure of one’s own state in action, especially when using visual feedback of the action, because of the limited temporal resolution of visual perception. A possible way to overcome this problem is to use auditory feedback because auditory perception has higher temporal resolution than vision. Here we propose real-time auditory feedback techniques designed to sonify the temporal coordination of multiple body segments in sports action on the basis of surface electromyography and acceleration signals. Our aim is to sonify how the body is controlled rather than behavioral outcomes or individual segmental activity. We believe that these techniques will help a player to learn a desired sports-related motor skill effectively.

Paper Nr: 109
Title:

Adaptation and Validation of Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire - 2 for Use with Brazilian Adolescents

Authors:

Maick Viana and Alexandro Andrade

Abstract: The aim of this research is to adapt and validate the Portuguese version of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire - 2 (BREQ - 2) for use with Brazilian adolescents. Was counted with the participation of 487 adolescent students (13-18 years) of both sexes, high school students from public schools in the Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the BREQ - 2 is clear and valid, but the use of different factor structure of the original version of the scale is recommended, as indicated by the results.

Area 43 - Sports Medicine and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 115
Title:

Kinematic Analysis of the Gait in Professional Ballet Dancers - The Effect of Rehabilitation Intervention on Movement of Lower Limbs and Pelvis during the Gait in Professional Ballet Dancers

Authors:

Lucie Teplá, Markéta Procházková, Zdeněk Svoboda, Miroslav Janura and Jana Vaculíková

Abstract: Professional ballet dancers could be compared to high-performance athletes due to great demands of ballet movements (Leanderson et al., 1996). An exacting ballet position place high stress on many segments of the dancer´s body and can significantly influence the mobility of the lower limb joints (Levinger et al., 2010). The majority of lower limbs movements during ballet are performed with hip external rotation and increased movement of the pelvis (Kiefer et al., 2011; Wilson & Decker, 2009). Ballet position on the top of the foot (en´pointe) requires extreme plantar flexion and foot pronation (Ahonen, 2008; Lung, Chern, Hsieh & Yang, 2008). This is a special situation that distinguishes dance from other sports (Miller, 2006). This leads to movement compensation and increased the risk for overused injuries predominately in lower limbs (Gilbert, Gross, & Klug, 1998). These undesirable effects of ballet training can be subsequently translated to performance of common daily activities like walking. To prevent these negative consequences it is necessary to provide adequate physiotherapy which is often neglected in professional dancers. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rehabilitation intervention on kinematic parameters during the gait in ballet dancers.

Area 44 - Health, Sports Performance and Support Technology

Posters
Paper Nr: 120
Title:

Benefits of Resistance and Aerobic exercise association to nutritional advice in cancer patients

Authors:

Cristian Petri, Laura Stefani, Gabriele Mascherini, Lorenzo Francini, Lisa Sequi and Giorgio Galanti

Abstract: In cancer patients visceral and subcutaneous fat is strongly related to an enhancement of the comorbidities. Correction of dietary habits and Physical Exercise (PE) are means used for the reduction of metabolic risk factors especially in these patients. Aerobic exercise has been well studied but few data are available in case of combination with resistance exercise. The aim of the study is to assess the effects of both exercise, resistance and aerobic, associated to correction of dietary habits in reducing the major risk factors.

Paper Nr: 121
Title:

Eating Habits in Young Athletes - Diet and Lifestyle Analysis in Florence

Authors:

Cristian Petri, Gabriele Mascherini, Lorenzo Francini, Lisa Sequi and Giorgio Galanti

Abstract: Considering that the eating habits of each individual consolidate in school age, it is clear how important a proper eating behaviour can ensure both a healthy and proper growth and development in the developmental age, and if it can continue to persist its beneficial effects, even in adult life. Diet should meet the demands of all the nutrients and energy to allow the increase in body mass, maintaining all physiological processes and adequate physical activity. By contrast, poor eating habits, not only can determine the onset of chronic degenerative diseases in the long run, but they can also determine, in the short term, the lack of essential nutrients and compromise the development of the organism of the child. Childhood obesity is considered an important predictor of obesity in adulthood1. A high BMI during adolescence predicts high mortality from cardiovascular disease in adulthood even when the excess weight is lost. According to the estimates of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI)2 of the WHO, about one in three children aged between 6 and 9 years were overweight in 2010 (WHO 2010)3 against estimated 1:46 in 2008. For a proper growth is therefore necessary to correct poor eating habits and an adequate physical activity: it has been demonstrated that the sport is able to decrease the overweight and obesity4. This study is aimed to investigate how young people that practicing sports overweight or obesity occurs.